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    Art and Culture

    Writers and Poets

    Josué de Sousa Montello was born in São Luís on August 21st, 1917. Montello is a novel wright, playwright, ensaísta e polígrafo - a very learned man. He is doubtlessly the most famous name of his generation of Maranhense intellectuals. Montello was the Inspector of Commercial Education, and Education Technician, the Director of the Courses of the National Library, General Secretary of Maranhão, General Director of the National Library and Vice-Chief of the Civil Gabinet of the President. He was dean of Brazilian Studies at the University of San Marcos (in Lima, Peru - which named him "honoris causa" professor), and is a member of the Brazilian Lisbon Institute and of the Geographical and Historic Institute of Pará, as well as an effective member of the Literature Academies of Maranhão (place no. 31, of Raimundo Lopes) and Brazil (place no. 29, of Martins Pena). The enormous list of publications of Josué Montello include short stories, novels, literary essays, plays, children literature, pedagogy and bookkeeping works, and historic studies. In his works, the use of direct, fluent and clear language as well as the importance given to the flow of the story and the detailed psychological features of the characters show his commitment with traditional ways of narration. His novels also bring descriptions of social customs of São Luís, where most of them locate their ploys.

    Joaquim de Sousa Andrade, who decided to call himself Sousândrade , was born in the Farm Nossa Senho-ra da Vitória, in the prefecture of Guimarães (MA), on July, 9th, 1832 and died in São Luís on April 21st, 1902. His family was very rich, but he lost his parents very early. He did his first studies in São Luís and then went to Rio de Janeiro to study Medicine, which he quit after a short time. Following, he went to France, where he enrolled in Sorbonne to Study Language and Engineering. Sousândrade, after having visited many other European countries, returned to Maranhão, visited the Amazon and then lived in the United States for more than ten years, where he followed the education of his daughter, Maria Barbara. After all this traveling, Sousândrade definitely came back to São Luís in 1885. During this period, he rarely left the city.

    Abolitionist and republican, Sousândrade was the first mayor of São Luís, right after the establishment of the Republic. He is also the creator of the Maranhense flag.

    Sousândrade was a poet of great expression powers. He's the author of very personal and innovative works, being considered one of the forerunners of Modern Poetry in Brazil.

    Sousândrade wrote a Pan-American epic, The Guesa, in which he worked all his life. He also published Harpas Selvagens (Wild Harps - 1857), O Novo Éden (New Eden - 1893) and many other volumes of poetry and songs of The Guesa, his masterpiece. Two books, Harpa de Ouro (Golden Harp) and Liras Perdidas (Lost Lires), were only published in 1970 for the first time.

    Harp XXXII

    From the reddish sides of the round ocean
    with its light wings holding Earth
    I have seen the sun rise young and beautiful
    disordely by the golden shoulders
    The luminous perfumed coma
    on the faces of the warmth which raises love
    the coral smile left errant
    don't bring around me your thunderbolt
    stop the fire sun
    You, who before in sincere songs I used to greet
    at this time of hope
    stand up and go without listening to my lyre
    when infant at the bottom of the asleep orange tree
    bedew flowers raining
    odors inside the branch and the beautiful fruit
    In my parents'land I woke up
    my sisters smiling and the song and perfume
    and the whisper of ruby mango tree
    it was your rays that first came to touch me
    the cords of white lute at my timid knees lament.
    (Harpas Selvagens / 1857 ¾ Wild Harps / 1857)

    Antônio Gonçalves Dias, was born on August 10th, 1823, in Caxias (MA) and died on November 3rd, 1864 on the Maranhense shore, in the wreck of the ship that brought him from France, the Ville de Boulogne.

    Gonçalves Dias graduated in Law in the University of Coimbra, Portugal and returned to Maranhão in 1845. In the following year, he went to Rio de Janeiro, where he started his literary career which would soon rise him to the position of the greatest Brazilian Poet at that time.

    Besides his important scientific work in the field of ethnography, such as the Dictionary of the Tupi Language, his memoirs Brazil and Oceania and the novels Patkull, Beatriz Cenci, Leonor de Mendonça and Boabdil, Gonçalves Dias wrote one of the most important works of Brazilian poetry ever, gathered in a single volume, Cantos (1857), which comprises Os Primeiros Cantos (First Chants- 1846), Segundos Cantos (Second Chants), Sextilhas de Frei Antão (1848) and Últimos Cantos (Last Chants - 1851). He left unfinished Os Timbiras, an epic poem that would be composed by sixteen chants, of which only four were published in 1857.


    Exile Song

    There are palms in my land
    where the sabiá* merrily sings
    The birds singing here
    will never sing like over there

    Our skies show more stars
    Our fields, more flowers
    Our woods gather more life
    Our lives, much more love

    When thinking alone at night
    Much more pleasure I find there
    There are palms in my land
    where the sabiá merrily sings

    My land has gifts
    which I cannot find here
    When thinking alone at night
    Much more pleasure I find there
    There are palms in my land
    where the sabiá merrily sings

    Oh, God, don't let me die
    before I get back there,
    without enjoying the pleasures
    that I cannot find here
    without seeing the palms
    where the sabiá merrily sings.

    Coimbra, July 1841


    (*sabiá - a common and very appreciated singing bird in Maranhão)



    Piaga's Chant

    O, warriors of the sacred Taba*
    O, warriors of the Tupi tribe
    The Gods speak in the Chants of Piaga
    O, warriors, hear my chants!

    Tonight - the moon had already set -
    Anhangá did not let me dream
    In the horrible cave where I live
    a hoarse voice called me

    I open my eyes, uneasy and fearful,
    Manitôs! What wonders I saw!
    The wood of smoky resin burning,
    It was not me, I did not light it

    And then a ghost comes form under my feet
    A huge, enormous ghost
    A bare skull lies by my side,
    An horrendous snake rolls on the ground.

    My blood freezes in my veins
    I shook entirely, blood and flesh
    All my members shivered
    and I felt cold on my face

    It was ugly, evil, horrible
    O, warriors, the ghost I saw
    The Gods speak in the Chants of Piaga
    O, warriors, hear my chants!

    (* Taba : Indian hut)

    José Américo Olímpio Augusto Cavalcante dos Albuquerques Maranhão Sobrinho was born in Barra Do Corda, Maranhão, on December 30th 1879 and died in Manaus on December 25th 1915. He was a member and founder of the Maranhense Academy of Literature and became the patron of its 21st place.

    Maranhão Sobrinho was one of the most important Brazilian symbolists and wrote in newspapers of São Luís, Belém and Manaus. He published his verses in Papéis Velhos (Old Papers - 1908), Estatuetas (Statues - 1909) and Vitórias Régias (Victoria regia - 1911).

    INTERLUNAR
    Maranhão Sobrinho

    Among cruel clouds of purple and geranium
    reddish as blood as an ancient Greek soldier,
    the sun, defeated, goes down the uranium plain
    of twilight, mute as a retired Essene

    Fast as a wild horse, flying as in a myth
    trembling, the light of the afternoon oxygen
    fades away, reminding me of Mallarmé's
    eyes, under the blessings of sadness and genialness

    The onyx of shadows grows in the tragic decline
    of the day in which, resembling pirates in the Ionic sea,
    puts in twilight purple lights of murder

    And then nights comes, whit remembrances of a sea of bad luck
    tears the strange mansion of Death and the Devil
    with the Medieval shades of Night

    (from the Book 'Papéis Velhos' ¾ Old Papers)


    Francisco de Assis Garrido was born in São Luís on December 14th, 1889 and died in the same city on De-cember 1st 1969. He was a member of the Maranhense Academy of Literature, where he occupied the fourth place. Among other books, Assis Garrido published Sol Glorioso (Glorious Sun - 1922), O meu livro de mágoa e ternura (My book of sorrow and tenderness - 1923), O livro de minha loucura (The book of my insanity - 1923), A divina mentira (The Divine Lie - 1944) and Crepúsculo (Sunset - 1969).


    Venus

    O, Goddess, on your feet I put my beliefs!
    Woman, I search you, I love you, I desire you!
    For your nudity - the clothes of my dreams,
    for your voluptuousness - the fire of my kiss

    Divine human figure, impure and caste, the sad look,
    Loose hair, naked body - as I see you -
    Give me all the heat of the verses I compose
    And fill me with joy as I struggle for life

    I praise you, for you have sung the hymns of Love
    and came form the sea, white, light and shining,
    for the pagan heritage of my Latin blood!

    I praise you, for you are attached to the soul of men
    For the celebration of your astonishing flesh
    and eternal harmony of form and beauty!

    (In Anthology of Maranhense Academy of Literature - 1958)

    Odylo Costa Filho was born in São Luís on December 14th 1914 and died in Rio de Janeiro on August 19th, 1979. Costa Filho was an essayist, novelist, journalist and poet. He was on of the most outstanding men in the press of Brazil at his time and was a member both of the Brazilian and Maranhense Academies of Literature.
    Author of these poems : Tempo de Lisboa e outros poemas (1967 - Lisboa Time and Another poems), Cantiga Incompleta (1971 - Uncompleted Song), Notícias de Amor (1974 - News about love), Boca da Noite (1979 - The Night's Mouth).

    The Mansion

    That empty mansion that waits for me
    has outer walls that resemble the flame
    that comes from the square outside
    spilling itself into the bottom of the souls

    But I will know how to do it well
    and from the hands stretched towards the world
    to its panels filled with tiles
    sparrows will come from the wide skies

    I will have my heart in this mansion
    Our love will walk through these streets
    and lay on the high-grown grass

    that lies on the basalt walls
    and on the beaches, in the warm tenderness
    of the waters, rest forever.
    (Notícias de Amor, 1977)

    Manoel Caetano Bandeira de Mello ,born in Caxias on June 30th, 1916, lives in Rio de Janeiro today. Journa-list, professor, translator and poet, Bandeira de Mello is a member of the Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    Bandeira de Mello published many poetry books: A Viagem Humana (The Human Voyage - 1960), O Mergulha-dor (the Diver - 1963), Canções da Morte e do Amor (Songs of Death and Love - 1968), Da Humana Promessa (Of the Human Promise - 1976), Uma Canção à Beira Mar (A Song by the Shore - 1977), Durante o Canto (During the Chant - 1978), A Estrada das Estrelas (The Road to the Stars - 1981), Da Constante Canção (Of the Constant Song - 1983) and Outono Estação do Amor (Autumn: Season of Love - 1987).

    O Mergulhador, composed by 15 sonnets, was named after this one:

    The Diver

    Manoel Caetano Bandeira de Mello

    Supported by wires and by yourself you are
    in distances that shut down the sea
    All the immense appeal calling you
    does not efface the fading body

    For the ocean emerges to claim you
    from the air where it is born
    a new story for the look that loves
    the jump which stays in itself

    Involved in its own movement
    dancing on parallel lines
    made of fictitious traces

    go the waves, taken by the wind
    but the shape of your body in the space
    remains on the ashes of other pictures


    Roberto Kenard Fernandes Rios was born in São Luís on October 18th, 1958. A journalist, he is the author of many penetrating texts published in the press. Kenard was awarded many literary prizes in São Luís and other Brazilian capitals.

    Besides featuring in Poetical Anthologies, he published the following books: No Meio da Vida (In the Middle of Life), Ao Lado Esquerdo do Corpo (On the Left Side of the Body) and O Camaleão no Espelho (The Chameleon on the Mirror).

    Indiscreet Camera

    A lyrically-bearded poet
    babbles
    in the bar
    his poems
    Good afternoon
    elegant bard
    beware of the wind
    his very intimate leaves
    won't resist a soft blow

    The waiter will soon remove
    the heart over the table

    a boat moors at the pier

    a heart's place is in the chest
    stubborn bard
    curió* exposed to the tourists

    the bourgeoise woman,
    lipstick and make up,
    raises her arm,
    the waiter passes by as a heron

    the old poet shouts:
    liturgy of the useless!

    Everything falls down,
    the razor-winged wind
    on the gray, provincial afternoon.

    (curió - a very appreciated singing bird)

    (The Chameleon on the Mirror, 1990)

    Bernardo Coelho de Almeida (São Bernardo (MA) 6/13/1927 - São Paulo 8/4/1996) was a journalist, orator, novelist and poet. He was a member of Academia Maranhense de Letras (Maranhense Academy of Literature). Almeida is the author of novels like A Última Promessa (The Last Promise - 1968) and O Bequimão (1973). He also gathered part of his chronicles in Galeria! (1961) and published Éramos Felizes e Não Sabíamos (We were happy and didn't know that - 1989) and poetry in Luz! Mais Luz! (Light! More Light! - 1954) and A Gênese do Azul (The Genesis of Blue - 1955).

    Meeting Sonnet

    All the longing inside of me turns into
    hands and sudden eyes in the well
    where I quench, more tenderly,
    the thirst of my juvenile wonderings

    In a deep mirror the early virgin
    strips and involves herself in strength
    and every voice I can't hear
    responds to the millennial echo that tortures me

    A hidden face lays on my face
    I don't know where it comes from, how far?
    From the liquid roots of the rocks?

    Or from me? If silence scares
    as a song that would revive
    buried idols form my childhood

    (from The Genesis of Blue)


    José Carlos Lago Burnett (São Luís 8/15/1929 - Rio de Janeiro 1/2/1995) was a very skillful journalist. He performed all functions in his profession, becoming a master. Lago Burnett wrote books that are considered clas-sics in the gender and also gave speeches in courses of Journalism that were real classes about writing in the press.

    Besides various volumes in prose - including two of chronicles - he published the following poetry books: Es-trela do Céu Perdido (Star of the Lost Sky - 1949), O Ballet das Palavras (The Ballet of the Words - 1951), Os Elementos do Mito (The Elements of the Myth - 1953) and O Amor e Seus Derivados (Love and its derivations - 1984).

    Farewell

    Lago Burnett

    When you went away, there was something
    strange in me, I don't know what force
    ran together with my soul and
    soaked my eyes wet whit tears.

    The whole street cried that day:
    trees, rocks, the window
    the post, on the corner, seemed to melt
    whit an anguished light, as a black candle

    You had a peaceful look. I saw, though,
    deep inside yourself a wing of pain
    flying over an enormous ocean of weeping

    When you vanished, turning the corner of absence
    the whole street, just like your house,
    closed the doors to happiness.

    (from Star of the Lost Sky)


    Manuel de Jesus Lopes was born in Dom Pedro, Maranhão, on October 2nd 1929 and graduated in Classic Literature by the Federal University of Maranhão. Jesus Lopes is a professor, journalist and a development techni-cian (his function at SUDENE, where he worked until retiring). He is also a member of the Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    Jesus Lopes wrote technical works and poetry books - which awarded him some literary prizes. His poetry is published in: Voz no Silêncio (Voice in the Silence - 1953), Poemas de Agosto (August Poems - 1955), Um Homem à Beira do Rio (A Man by the River - 1961), Campo-ilha-urbs ou Canto Puro, com muito Amor, para São Luís do Maranhão (Pure Song, with love to São Luís (MA) 1977) and Canção Itinerária (Itinerary Song - 1989).

    Itinerary Song

    The way was a short one, but you went fast
    as if it were long and you didn't know
    I repeatedly surprised you in this
    constant trip over you bitter days

    Your look was steady, your hands thick
    I don't know of your pain because you smiled
    and I saw you covering the road you went
    with hope, promises and smiling

    Ah! In such a fast run you could
    have very little of life and
    your hands, as your hopes, are empty

    Now I see you: the march stops
    your body bent over the white beard
    It was a short way and you didn't know

    (Itinerary Song, 1989)

    José Sarney was born in Pinheiro, Maranhão, on April 24th 1930 and graduated in the Law School of Mara-nhão. He joined many literary and student movements which began in that Institute.

    Sarney started working with journalism and literature very soon. He is a member both of the Maranhense and Brazilian Academies of Literature and president of the first one - besides many other cultural institutions throughout the world. José Sarney also became a politician; he was a Congressman, Governor of Maranhão and President of Brazil. Today he is the president of the Senate.

    Sarney published, among other books, Norte das Águas (North of the Waters, short stories - 1970), O Dono do Mar (the Owner of the Sea, novel - 1995), Canção Inicial (Initial Song, poems - 1954) and Os Marimbondos de Fogo (Fire Wasps, poems).


    The Bells of São Pantaleão

    The square of São Pantaleão
    had life
    the beginning of everything,
    with the carillons
    tolling for the dead
    and chiming hallelujahs

    On Madre Derus street
    one couldn't hear bells
    nor tower, nor sacristan
    going up the stairway
    where the angels, like
    the clouds at night
    and I, lived

    Time was raw as meat
    and there was in me
    this hunger for
    São Pantaleão square
    and the commonplace of
    Madre Deus street

    This emptiness remained
    with my desire to become a sailor
    climbing the mountains of the sea
    a mixture
    of everything my mouth hadn't tasted
    and doubts that spilled over my hands

    Tides and years passed by with me
    Always the sun, the rain, the little orange tree
    and sleeping rosemaries
    inside my eyes closed
    made me forget the sea,
    the bells, the dawns and the missals

    I returned to where it had begun
    the eternal São Pantaleão square
    and a bleeding Madre Deus.


    Ferreira Gullar, literary name of José Ribamar Ferreira, was born in São Luís in September 10th, 1930. Gullar is a journalist, playwright, essayist, critic of arts and, mainly, a poet - one of the greatest in Brazil today.

    Gullar's poetry, gathered in Toda Poesia (All Poetry - 1980), is composed by the following books: A Luta Corpo-ral (Bodily Fight - 1954), O Vil Metal (Metal Base), Poemas Concretos/Neoconcretos (Concrete/ Neo-concrete Poems - 1957-8), Romances de Cordel (Cordel* Novels - 1962-5), Dentro da Noite Veloz (In the Fast Night - 1962-75), Poema Sujo (Dirty Poem - 1975), Na vertigem do dia (In the Dizziness of the Day - 1975-80) and Barulhos (Noises - 1980-7). The author did not include here Um Pouco Acima do Chão (A Bit Above the Ground - 1949), his first book, published when he still lived in São Luís.

    Of Seven Portuguese Poems

    Ferreira Gullar

    I promised myself I would have her
    In spite of her forgiving me and making me blind
    I searched her in the catastrophe of dawn,
    in the fountain and in the wall where her face,
    among mansions and sounding peace
    of water and moss, is born.

    However, everytime I approach she flees
    as if she feared or hated me
    I pursue her, then, soberly and dementedly
    If I happen to see her feet behind a transparent afternoon,
    they soon disappear in the space between clouds,
    in a shining and agile way.

    Vocabulary and body - fragile Deities -
    I gather this absence that burns my hands

    (From A Luta Corporal )

    Nauro Diniz Machado was born in São Luís on August 2nd, 1935. He was an essayist and, most of all, a poet. Machado first published in 1958 and today has a bibliography of almost 30 titles. His first book, Campo sem Base was surely an important event for the Brazilian Poetry. It would present the author to fame and success, which were always confirmed by his following books. They are: O Exercício do Caos (The Exercise of Chaos - 1961), Do Frustrado Órfico (Of the Frustrated Orphic - 1963), Segunda Comunhão (Second Communion - 1964), Ouro notur-no (Night Gold - 1965), Zoologia da Alma (Zoology of the Soul - 1966), Necessidade do Divino (Necessity of the Divine - 1967), Noite Ambulatória (Ambulatory Night - 1969), Do Eterno Indeferido (of the Eternally Refused - 1971), Décimo Divisor Comum (Tenth Common Divider - 1972), Testamento Provincial (Provincial Will - 1973), A Vigésima Aula (The 20th Class - 1974), Os Parreirais de Deus (The Vineyards of God - 1975), Os Órgãos Apocalípticos (The Apocalyptic Organs - 1976), A Antibiótica Nomenclatura do Inferno (The Antibiotic Nomenclature of Hell - 1977), As Órbitas da Água (The Orbits of Water - 1978), Masmorra Didática (Didactic Dungeon - 1979), O Calcanhar do Humano (The heel of the Human - 1981), O Cavalo deTróia (the Horse of Troy - 1982), O Signo das Tetas (the Sign of the Tits - 1984), Apicerum da Clausura (1985), Opus da Agonia (Opus of Agony - 1986), O Anafilático Desespero da Esperança (Anaphylactic Despair of Hope - 1987), A Rosa Blindada (Blinded Rose - .1989), Mar Abstêmio (Abstemious Sea - 1991), Lamparina da Aurora (Lamp of Dawn - 1992) and Funil do Ser ( Funnel of Being - 1995).

    Birth

    My body is complete - the man, not the poet
    But I wish, it is necessary
    that I suffer and forge myself into a poet
    that I now destroy what is superfluous and illusory
    and have visions of my essence and of things
    so that, afterwards; happy, battered but true,
    I emerge with a poem
    as a warning cry
    being a poet is hard and long-lasting
    and it takes a whole existence.

    (From Campo sem Base - 1958)
    Fernando Braga dos Santos Gamellas was born in São Luís on May 29th 1944. Fernando Braga is a lawyer and has been living in Brasília for some years, where he still writes poems and prose, besides literary studies.
    Braga first published in 1967. The book was Silêncio Branco (White Silence) and, from then on, many other works were published. Some of them are: Ofício do Medo (Craft of Fear - 1977), O Exílio do Viajante (The Trave-ler's Exile - 1982) and Campo Memória (Memorial Field - 1991).

    Night Distance

    My eyes emigrate to São Luís,
    my terribly sad city
    where half a sky hides
    God's face from the glasses of the plain.

    I came here to turn myself into a bush
    for I am a traveler in this green

    A dead loaf left on the table
    was my very belated supper

    Some abandoned night wine
    causes my body to boil
    tensely straight, in this dateless night
    when I am willing not to feel myself

    (from Ofício do Medo - 1977)

    Laura Amélia Damous Duailibe was born in Turiaçu, Maranhão, on April 10th 1945. She has worked very much on behalf of cultural activities in São Luís. Formerly a Cultural Assessor at the State Secretariat of Culture, Laura Amélia Damous worked at Benedito Leite Public Library, where she helped creating a special building for students, and as the Director of Odylo Costa Filho Cultural Center (related to Arthur Azevedo Theater). Nowadays, she is the Subsecretary of Culture in the State of Maranhão.

    Laura Amélia Damous has published three books: Brevíssima Canção do Amor Constante (Brief Song of Cons-tant Love - 1985), Arco de Tempo (Time Curve - 1987) and Traje de Luzes (Garment of Lights - 1993).

    Guarnicê* of Memory

    It doesn't matter if the matracas**
    are dispersed. The rhythm
    goes down your feet
    in the right beat

    It doesn't matter if the voices fade away
    the songs become eternal
    as they resound throughout the nights

    It doesn't matter if the Boi is worn out ,
    It will dance forever in your eyes.

    (from Brevíssima Canção do Amor Constante)

    * This poem uses many terms which are peculiar of the Bumba-meu-Boi dance. "Guar-nicê" is the rehearsal of the dance.
    ** "Matraca" is one of the typical instruments used in Bumba-meu-Boi. It is made of two pieces of wood that are hit against each other in order to produce a 'clapping' sound.


    Viriato Santos Gaspar was born in São Luís on March 7th, 1952. One of the participants of the movement called Antroponáutica, Gaspar joined the Anthology Hora de Guarnicê (1975), which gathered the most representa-tive young poets then.
    Viriato Gaspar, who lives in Brasília today, is the author of the following poetry books, among others: Manhã Portátil (Portable Morning - 1984), Onipresença (Omnipresence - 1986) and A Lâmina do Grito ( The Shout Blade - 1988).

    Index

    The Man is the material of my song,
    whichever the color of his feelings.
    No matter the reasons for his tears,
    he is a man, a brother and his pain makes me suffer

    Mine is his fear of the world
    in these very unusual times
    from the trench of the words I raise
    against whatever attacks him

    The Man is object and objective
    when I can sing, and this song
    is the only way to explain my being alive

    I am sometimes an atheist, sometimes a believer
    other times I am a rebel, some others, mute
    I am a Man, and I sing the man of my days.

    (from Manhã Portátil)

    Luís Augusto Cassas de Araújo, Maranhense from São Luís, was born in March 2nd, 1953 and graduated in Law by the Federal University of Maranhão. His prose was vastly published by the press of São Luís and he is considered one of the fundamental poets of this generation.

    Luís Augusto Cassas started writing very soon in his life, and very intensively. However, he is very rigorous when it comes to the selection of his poems. Therefore, he was not in a hurry to publish his first book - what is not very common in young poets. Nevertheless, he began with a work whose level compares to his further books.

    Cassas published A República dos Becos (The Republic of Alleys - 1981), A Paixão Segundo Alcântara (Passi-on According to Alcântara - 1985), Rosebud (1990) and O Retorno da Aura (The Return of the Aura - 1994).

    Paulista Roulette

    I
    The road linking
    Heaven to Earth
    is already open
    (an angel just told me
    last night)
    it is there to accelerate the traffic of souls
    haunted, lost, regretting souls
    all of them expiated
    that want to fl towards God
    and, for a lack of care from the Eternal,
    almost end up

    II
    It is a preferential lane
    carefully built
    to block sin
    (risk of contamining heaven)
    So, dear friends
    to prevent all evil
    in all the course of the road
    angels, archangels, cherubs and seraphs
    stand in guard

    III
    When I die
    I also want my soul
    - like all others -
    to go through this road
    But I don't know how to ask for forgiveness
    I forgot that act of contrition
    and I don't want to play dice
    as in an exercise of desperation
    I risk a crazy penitence:
    I accelerate the car to full speed
    do not respect whistles,
    red traffic lights
    and warning signs

    IV
    It is the only probability
    of reaching eternity

    (from República dos Becos - 1981)

    Paulo Melo Sousa was born in São Luís on May 6th, 1960 and graduated in Industrial design and Communica-tion by the Federal University of Maranhão. Nowadays he is a teacher in the Communication course at the same University.

    Melo Sousa is one of the creators of the poeme-se group, which promotes recitals, poetry and literary debates. The Poeme-se has also, in Praia Grande, a store where used books are sold in a way to promote the cultural development of the people in São Luís.

    Paulo Melo Sousa published many poems in magazines of São Luís and Brasília. He gathered all his poetry in one single volume, Oráculo de Lucifer (Lucifer's Oracle)

    Labor

    Poetry does not need bodyguards
    it is marrow
    it lives within the flora of language

    It builds its fever
    out of the ashes of heaven and hell
    Phoenix of words
    It suffices to explain its genesis

    (from Oráculo de Lúcifer)


    Lucy de Jesus Teixeira, natural from Caxias, Maranhão, was born on July 11th 1922. She is a lawyer, gra-duated by the Federal University of Minas Gerais and, during the period of her studies in Belo Horizonte, had an effective participation in literary movements . This would continue after her getting back to São Luís, where her work was constantly published by the local press, under the name of Maria Carla.

    Lucy de Jesus Teixeira worked in the Ministry of External Relations and served in Brazilian diplomatic repre-sentations in Belgium. Spain and Italy. /she retired in 1990 and lives now in Limeira, São Paulo, and regularly comes to Maranhão for visits. Part of her poetry work is published in Elegia Fundamental (Fundamental Elegia - 1962) and Primeiro Palimpsesto (First Palimpsest - 1978).

    Tapestry

    Lucy Teixeira

    The Assyrian of the day
    play with your head
    on the shining morning stairs

    This is how ruin starts
    Time with its spectral peacocks
    wandering in the very solemn garden
    The eyes of the birds watch:
    Where to go?
    Memories are like a drunk old woman
    vomiting acid, old mornings

    The Assyrians go hunting
    opening paths in your body
    where everything, frightened, looks for shelter
    Your skin is a servant
    on the top of the rock
    jumping into the darkest gulf

    The hunting horns shine under the sun
    and rejoice, for you are wounded
    There is glory in being the prey

    The feast, The feast. Night
    is a balcony swinging with stars
    The Assyrians, exhausted,
    throw your head aloft
    once, twice, three times
    and then faint.


    José Francisco das Chagas was born in Piancó, Paraíba, on October 29th, 1924. However, he lives in Mara-nhão since 1948. Journalist, chronicler and poet, Chagas is a member of the Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    Beside books in prose, José Chagas published the following poetry books: Canção da Expectativa (Expectation Song - 1955), O discurso da Ponte (The Speech of the Bridge - 1959), O Caso da Ponte São Francisco (The Case of São Francisco Bridge - 1964), Os Telhados (The Roofs - 1965), Maré/Memória (Tide/Memory - 1973), Lavoura Azul (Blue Crops - 1974), Colégio do Vento (School of Wind - 1974), Maré de Moça (Girl Tide - 1977), Pão e Água (Bread and Water - 1978), Os Canhões do Silêncio (The Silence Canyons - 1979), all them reissue on Poesia Reunida (Collected Poems - 1980), and still : De lavrae de palavra ou campoemas (1980), Maré de aço ('onda de alumínio', or o naufrágio da Ilha) ¾ (Steel Tide, 'aluminum wave', or the wreck of the island - 1983), A cor do puro - (The color of the pur - '83), Águas do silêncio (1987), A arcada do tempo (1988), Cem anos de infância ou o poeta e o rio - ( 100 years of childhood or sigh of Human Pain - 1988), Alcântara; negociação do azul ou a castração dos anjos - (Alcântara - negotiation of blue or castration of angels - 1994), Tabuada de memória - (Table of memory - 1984).

    The Rose

    José Chagas

    I get down to pick a rose
    Not this unnecessary rose you pick,
    but one that does not burn your looks nor fills you with perfume
    And that, therefore, you find it empty and hateful

    I pick the rose born in mysterious plants
    and offer it to you, because in fact -
    not in a sunny morning - but in this fog,
    only an offered rose can be enjoyed

    You believe the rose in the garden is pure?
    It is not. It will never be. Maybe it has been.
    (The Rose is the Earth in transformation)

    I pick the untouched Rose in the way
    The Rose which is eternal in itself,
    that is not made of futile perfume nor thorns.

    (from the book Expectation Song ¾ Canção da Expectativa)

    Bandeira Tribuzi, literary name of José Tribuzi Pinheiro Gomes, was born in São Luís on 2/2/1927 and died in the same city on 9/8/1977. Professor, economist, journalist, essayist and poet, Tribuzi studied in the University of Coimbra, Portugal, and returned to São Luís in 1945. He published Alguma Existência (Some Existence - 1948), Rosa da Esperança (Rose of Hope - 1950), Safra (Harvest - 1961), Sonetos (Sonnets - 1962), Pele e Osso (Skin and Bones - 1970) and Breve Memorial do Longo Tempo (Brief Memorial of the Long Time - 1977). These were added by inedit poems, gathered in Poesias Completas (Complete poetry - 1979), which was republished in 1986, under the name Poesia Reunida (Gathered Poetry).

    Proposal

    Provide me
    with a little seed of dream
    and you will see the Land
    I shall compose with it

    I will plough its fields
    whit the sweat of the songs
    I will water with tears
    roses and ears of corn
    fruit gardens will spring
    from the bitter way
    turning themselves
    into roses
    in the previous thorn;

    boats of chimeras
    in a friendly sea
    shall harvest the crops
    of an ancient ocean

    Plants of Love
    shall bloom
    in the eyes, in the hand
    of flourishing tenderness

    an infra structure
    of human truth
    will hang its fruits
    towards liberty

    King Solomon's
    hidden mines
    will provide the steel
    of sweet passion

    soil and underground
    of human beings
    will be a foreland
    yet to dawn

    Provide me
    with a little seed of dream;
    and I shall give you
    a model Nation

    For it is enough for men
    a sun as History
    to make blossom
    their bread of victory!

    (from Pele e Osso - Skin and Bones)

    JOMAR DA SILVA MORAES, Jomar Moraes wrote 15 books, was director of Benedito Leite Public Library , of the State Service of Press and Graphic, of the State Department of Culture, of the Department of Cultural Matters at the Federal University of Maranhão and was also the State Secretary of Culture. He is a member of the Maranhen-se Academy of Literature and its president.

    Mário Martins Meireles :

    Mário Martins Meireles was born in São Luís, Maranhão, on March 3rd, 1925. He started his first studies in Santos (SP) in1920, proceeded with them in Manaus (AM) and in Rio de Janeiro, and finally finished them in São Luís, at the Benedito Leite school. He concluded high school in São Luís in 1931, at the Fiveiros Institute. After that, he studied Law at the University of Maranhão, which he interrupted in 1934 in Bahia. In 1966, Meireles took the studies of the Graduate Association of the Superior College of War in São Luís.

    Meireles has many unpublished works. The following have been published:

    Marabá, the Immortal (São Luís, 1949 - co-authorship with Acciles Lisboa); Gonçalves Dias and Ana Amélia (São Luís, 1954); Overview of Maranhense Literature (São Luís, Sioge, 1955), Veritas Liberabit Nos (São Luís, 1957 - co-authorship with José Maria Ramos Martins); Anthology of the Maranhense Academy of Literature (Rio, 1958 - co-authorship with Arnaldo Ferreira e Domingos Vieira Filho); Brief History of Maranhão (Rio, Senac, 1959); The 50th birthday of the Infant D. Henrique in Maranhão (São Luís, Federação do Comércio do Maranhão, 1960); History of Maranhão (Rio, 1960); History of Equinoctial Maranhão (São Luís, Departamento Universitário de Rádio, Imprensa e Livro, 1962); São Luís do Maranhão - a Tourist Guide (Rio, Bloch, 1962); Appraisal to Gonçalves Dias (São Luís, State Department of Culture, 1962); Catulo, singer and poet (São Luís, 1963); São Luís, the city of tiles (Rio, Graf. Tupi, 1964); History of Independence in Maranhão (Rio, Arte Nova, 1972); National Symbols of Brazil and Maranhão (São Luís, FUNC/CEA, 1972).


    JOSUÉ DE SOUSA MONTELLO

    Josué de Sousa Montello was born in São Luís on August 21st, 1917. Montello is a novel wright, playwright, en-saísta e po'ligrafo - a very learned man. He is doubtlessly the most famous name of his generation of Maranhense intellectuals. Montello was the Inspector of Commercial Education, and Education Technician, the Director of the Courses of the National Library, General Secretary of Maranhão, General Director of the National Library and Vice-Chief of the Civil Gabinet of the President. He was dean of Brazilian Studies at the University of San Marcos (in Lima, Peru - which named him "honoris causa" professor), and is a member of the Brazilian Lisbon Institute and of the Geographical and Historic Institute of Pará, as well as an effective member of the Literature Academies of Maranhão (place no. 31, of Raimundo Lopes) and Brazil (place no. 29, of Martins Pena). The enormous list of publications of Josué Montello include short stories, novels, literary essays, plays, children literature, pedagogy and bookkeeping works, and historic studies. In his works, the use of direct, fluent and clear language as well as the importance given to the flow of the story and the detailed psychological features of the characters show his com-mitment with traditional ways of narration. His novels also bring descriptions of social customs of São Luís, where most of them locate their ploys.


    HANDICRAFT

    Very rich handicraft works result from the blending of the three races that compose the Maranhense people. Among them we have weapons, utensils and adornments of the Canela, Guajajara, Krikati and Urubu indians; delicate bobbin laces; buriti-fiber-woven goods; hammocks made of cotton or mercerized thread which are widely used in the verandas and alcoves of houses. There are also remarkable, detailed miniatures of typical boats of the state, where naval-construction art is still regarded as tradition, taught to children by their fathers since immemorial times.

    These products of the Maranhese creativity - including Bumba-meu-Boi miniatures featuring all its cowboys, ca-zumbás, lords, indians and musicians - can be found in specialized shops located in the historical center of the city.


    MUSEUMS

    What happened, was registered and is kept. The Foundation of São Luís, the battles among portuguese, dutch and french for the great island colonization ¾ Upaon-Açu in the indians dialect. The colonial period church influence. Negroes heir itage. The whole history is kept in museums and not only in the people's memory who know how to maintain alive the traditions. What ever stayed in the past, of centuries, can be visited in historic museums, sacret arts and cultural material. The recent history of Brazilian Republic is preserved in heaps of books, rare pieces and documents of historical and politican incontestable values.
    The Republican Memory Museum is instalied in Mercês Convent, a colonial period construction building which holds important events that goes from congresses and seminars to artistic exposition, like may gather collec-tion, an important sample of actual plastic arts production of Maranhão and Northeast of Brazil.



    PLASTIC ARTISTS

    A . GARCÊS

    He was introduced to painting by artistis Espírito Santo, Luís Lola, and Newton Pavão in São Luis.Nascido nesta cidade em 1944.

    A powerful painter of strong colors, he works in thick paint strokes on canvas, explores scenes from everyday life, and uses the city's architecture as a backdrop.


    AIRTON MARINHO MACEDO
    This engraver (woodcutter) graduated in Industrial Design at the Maranhão Federal University - UFMA. He began bis career in the seventies as instructor a the Maranhão Visual Arts and Comunication Center - CENARTE006 - where be also made bis debut as en graver.

    He subsquequently developed bis own ploycrobhome process unequaled anywhere in the Brazilian Northeast. His woodcut collections including Child´s Play, To Works, Legends end Myths, Houses, and Popular Festival reflect bis strong coutryside roots ans first-hand experience.

    He bas displayed his art in Minas Gerais, Góias, São Paulo and Bahia. In 1993 he had a solo exibit at Gentil Homem de Almeida Braga, 066 da Federal University of Maranhão - UFMA, and ilustrated several books by Maranhão-born writers.

    Airton Marinho researches each theme before be starts on a series, He is an artist who carefully collects in advance all for the information be will neeed to develop bis work and explores each item in depth.

    " Airton is a workabolic. He bas incredible stmania, as obsessive stubornness, uns-bakable consstency, and a remakable ability to rediscover things". ( Legend according to Airton Marinho - jornal O Estado do Maranhão, daily, 09/19/1988 - Jesus San-tos041 - São Luís -MA).


    ALMIR TIRELLI
    He began his career as na artist in 1945 in drawing na painting.
    In 1970 he chose tapestry as his form of art.

    A nomad at heart, he has lived in several Brazilian states and fanally settlend at lagoa da Concei-ção, Santa Catarina Island.

    A study tour look him to the United States, Central America, part of' América do Sul e vários países da Europa.

    É detentor de vários prêmios, tendo trabalhos na França, Estados Unidos, Israel, Alemanha, Ho-landa, Nicarágua, argentina, Paraguai, Uruguai, Inglaterra, Japão, África do Sul, Malásia e Costa do Marfim.

    Seu tema predileto: a arquitetura brasileira.

    " Sua tapeçaria atesta o seu espírito inquieto que busca a linguagem plástica mas adequada, carregada de brasilei-ro. Autodidata, procura resolver problemas técnicos deixando entrever sua capacidade criadora na reprodução de ambientes históricos." (Opinião Mostra o Valor da Arte - Helena Lapa Maranhão, professora de História da Arte - Escola nacional de Belas Artes).

    AMBROSIO AMORIM
    This painter of São Luís urban landscapes puts local sites and traditions on canvas.

    He made his debut in 1946.

    He studied under Newton Pavão and Telésforo de Moraes Rêgo.

    He participated in the 2nd Artur Marinho Exibition in 1947 and was awarded the 2nd prize; in 1950 he was distin-guished whit an Honorable Mention from the 1st Exibition of the Maranhão Artistic Culture Society - SCAM.

    He was one of the patrons of Movelaria Guanabara in early 1950, along with other artists and intellectuals who hoped to rekindle the cultural mmilieu of the State. He subsequently traveled to rio de Janeiro and lived there for several years. During that period he attended Fernando P.'studio, the National School of Fine Arts, and studied under Bustamante Sá.

    Back in São Luís the proceeded with his career, showed is works and taught, again joining local movements. He and other fellow artists took part in the Maranhão Tapestry Center.

    In the lat seventies he joined the faculty os the State Center of Visual Arts and Communications - CENARTE. And taught oil painting. For several years now he signs a column on art each Sunday in the daily O Imparcial

    His focus as an artist is on social issues and city landscapes. He puts on canvas the alleys and streets filled of average destitute people in their daily struggle with poverty and anxiety.


    "His artistic approach is one of unshakablecommitment to social concerns, baring the contrsts of a society torn by class disparities." (Ambrósio Amorim - Jornal de Hoje, 8/16/1987 - Cralos Cunha - São Luís, MA.)

    "As I look at drawings and paintings of the talented Ambrósio Amorim I do not hesitate in saying that in the very near future Maranhão and Brazil will have a new Estêvão Silva. With him again we will show the world that skin color does not blunt either intelligence or a feeling for art." ( A maranhão Artist in Rio - daily Pacotilha, 10/22/1952, p.4 - Raul Deveza - São Luís, MA. - reprinted from the newspaper Voz Trabalhista of 10/15/1952, Rio de Janeiro).


    ANA MARIA COSTA FÉLIX, a writer, photographer, plastic artist, pianist and social assistant, was born in Ca-xias, Maranhão. Her chromatic artistic composition has abstract and figurative features derived from a mystical perspective which reveals cities, gestures, senses and people of a sensitively-perceived world. Félix participated in various collective and individual exhibits in São Luís and other Brazilian cities, besides Munich and Puccheim in Germany. Her paintings and tridimensional plastic works feature classic and experimental techniques, with many chromatic pigments, aluminum-made material and other metals. Félix's drawings and studies turn themselves into contemporaneous art of numerous forms and dimensions.

    The art of Maria Costa Félix gains sense from music, the cosmos and the nature. She believes that all the artists of the world will contribute to the transformation of the 21st century into gates to great dreams, hopes and achieve-ments for all peoples of the world.


    ANTONIO ALMEIDA
    The son of northeastern farm bands his father was from Ceara and his mother form Piaui - Antonio Almeida was born in a nameless farm in the backlands of barra do Corda, Maranhão, where his familia would establish the village of lagoa do jacare in 1932.

    A Painter, Sculptor, Muralist, Engraver, Ilustrador, Pother and Carver, he seeks inspiration in Max Bill and his concrete art for his collages


    COSME MARTINS
    His first paintings date back to 1979.

    He was noted at the 1980 Maranhão Fine Arts Exibition

    As a full-time artist between 1981 and 1983, he participated in the São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro Municipal Exhibit, and the "Young Painters"show held by the São paulo Art Museum - MASP.

    He moved to Rio de Janeiro, took classes at the Museum of Modern Art - MAM, and joint modernist avant-garde movements. His work was nationally acclaimed and his talent was recognized as a high point in contemporary Brzilian painting.
    Among other exhibits he took part in the 1992 group show at the National Museum of Fine Arts sponsored by Cân-dido Mendes Cultural Center.

    He is a master of dense and silent painting but gradually left behind figurative art to take on a more gestural, sober and ingenious style.

    "Cosme's art that Maranhão will see on the 3rd of this month is surprising for several reasons: the way the artist has grown in so short a time, is development of a very personal and striking language, and his still humble attitude which be can use as oxygen to invest in some bold ventures."(Cosme Returns More Mature - daily O Esta-do do Maranhão, 5/29/1988, p.19 - Marc Berkowitz - São Luís, MA).

    "...It is a true artistic vocation a proven talent. I am not sure if Cosme Martins is a self-taught artist, but it does not really matter in view of his talent..."(Cosme Martins: A Promising Painter - Marc Berkowitz).


    DILA
    Her earliest contact with art happened while she worked for five years at a convent restoring pieces of art, painting objects, and tending flowers . Looking for broader horizons, she moved to São Paulo to improve her pain-ting and learns engraving ( litho )and sculpture.

    She is an artist in love with her work, with life in the country, with portraying their religiousness and habits in naif style, with water-colored lithographs, and oils brimming wiht vigor and feeling.

    A self-taught artist, her debut was in 1968 with good critical and public response


    DONATO FONSECA FILHO
    A graduate in Art Education and major in Plastic Arts from the Federal University of Maranhão - UFMA, making a living as a civil servant, Donato began his art studies in 1982 at the Odylo Costa Filho Creativity Center under painter and teacher Ambrósio Amorim.


    EDIMAR SANTOS
    He entered the world for art in São Luís by taking paiting lessons from Ambrósio Amorim in 1974, and followed in his master's ffotsteps.

    He first showed his works to the public in solo and group shows in 1975.
    In 1980 he taught silk-screen at the State Center for Visual Arts and Comunications - CENARTE, this is when he experimented in tile work.

    In 1983 he studied at the Rio de Janeiro Visual Arts School - EAV, at Lage Park and taught several courses at the National Art Foudation - FUNARTE.

    He is an artist of everyday scenes from Maranhão, portraying the colonial architecture of São Luís as a living backdrop for the city's typical characters, their costumes and legends.

    "Encouraged by Ambrósio Amorim from whom he inherited a love for São Luís landscapes, Edimar Santos goes out into the streets to capture everyday life in color and the with mystical overtones. Edimar's fantasy comes from the seascapes, from the benches of the old Harbor, from centuries-old São Luís streets, and last but not least in an artist native to the blue city, from the old houses wearing the patina of time.
    As pointed out by another portrayer of old landscapes, Fernando P., this is perfect inspiration for an artist of pictorial power. Edimar is a young talent discovering his own world with a conscious, pure and well-founded language."(Daily O Estado do Maranhão, 11/5/1987, p. 15 - Ubiratan Teixeira - São Luís, MA).


    ESPÍRITO SANTO
    Espírito Santo is a teacher of art and painter who turned to painting very early. His debut was in French Guyana.

    With a degree in Philosophy from the Federal University of Maranhão - UFMA and another in Art Education from Guanabara University, Rio de Janeiro, he taught in Macapá, the capital city of Amapá State where he lives. He has always been an activist leader and tireless advocate of social causes.

    An exquisite landscape artist, he adopts a variety of styles and tendencies to ensure an accurate depiction of his subjects.

    He is now retired from public service and entirely devoted to painting


    FERNANDO MENDONÇA
    He is a painter of the latest generation.
    He joined Laborarte in 1978 and stayed until 1982, when he opened the Mirarte group with Marçal athaíde, and began to learn drawing and painting on his own. He was strongly influenced by Rubens Gerchman during that period. Since 1980 he has been actively involved in the art community with a number of shows at São Luís galleries and salons. Group exhibits: New Artists Salon, 1981, São Luís; Integration Art Exhibit, Federal University of Maranhão, 1982; New Artist's Group Show, São Luís, 1982; Solidarity Art Group Exhibition, São Luís, 1983; Artists at Work Group Exhibition, São Luís, 1983; 7th National Fine Arts Exhibition of Rio de Janeiro and its Highlights, 1985; Petrobrás Cultural Space - 1st Art Exhibition of the Oil Industry in Brazil, Riocentro, 1986; Los Americanos Exhibition, Artcurial, Paris, 1986; Villa-Lobos Museum , 1987; and Viva Brazil, Paris, 1988.
    One-man shows: Maranhão Licée, São Luís, 1982; Eney Santana Gallery, São Luís, 1984; FIAC - International Contemporary Art Fair, Galerie 1900/2000, Paris, 1986; Matias Marcier Gallery Exhibition, Rio, 1991, and Caixa Econômica Federal Cultural Center, São Luís, 1993.

    He has lived in Rio de Janeiro since 1985.

    Urban man and daily violence are the subjscts of his paintings heavy with powerful delusions of movement, where figures almost melt away in the urban scape as they rush to keep up eith daily routine.

    "Mendonça brought with him a piece of the Equator (below the Equator, his sunny tones spin and move) of his native São Luís, of his province. They are now filtered through an aesthtics of speed, of stain, of a swordsman's feint. His brushes are fast, post-Modern, futuristic as some might say, akin to Balla and Bottioni, but most of all a search for sunlight." (Rubens Gerchman, July/1987 - Catalog for the Vida Real exhibit).


    FERNANDO CLÓVIS PEREIRA
    His first studies were done at the Art and Crafts School, now Federal Technological Education Center, in São Luis.

    After a solo show in Maranhão, he moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1939 to study under Santa Rosa.

    He received the Overseas Travel Award from the National Fine Arts Exhibition in 1953 and spent the next few years touring Europe, completing his education in art in Paris. While there he toolk a free course on engraving at teh Académie Julien, studied painting with lhote and mosaic under Gino Severini


    FLORIANO DE ARAÚJO TEIXEIRA
    Painter, draftsman-engraver and sculptor.

    In 1935 he took his firt drawing classes from professor Rubens Damasceno in São Luis. His earliest water-colors data back to that period, precisely when he began to join the local art movements.

    He showed at the December Exhibition in 1941 and received a prize for his Drunkards


    FLORY LISBOA GAMA
    He started studying art under sculptor Newton Sá in São Luis ( MA ), encouraged by his uncle and sanitati-on physician Filogônio Lisboa.

    His boady of work is vast and can he found in collections spread around several countries as well as in Brazilian cities. A few examples are: National Museem of Fine Arts, Rio de Janeiro ( seven Items ), Pedro II School, founder Bernardo Pereira de Vasconelos ); Paris Cancer Hospital; Caixa Econômica in Rio de Janeiro; Museum of Fine Art, Bueno Aires, Argentina; Indian Parliament, New Delhi ( Monument to Indira Gandhi ); Monumental Gate to the city of Rio de Janeiro; Monumental to Estácio de Sá located on the road between Rio and Petrópolis, facing the Armory Museum, Rio de Janeiro; memorial statue for the tomb of Satú Belo, São Luis; miscellaneous busts, statues and medallions decorating " patheons " at several Brazilian cultural institutions, including the Brazilian Literary Academy.


    GERALDO REIS
    He took lessons in drawing, painting, perspective, and art history in 1981 at the State Center of Visual Arts and Communication - CENARTE in São Luís.

    He met Nagy Lajos under whom he studied chromatics. His debut was at the New Artists Exhibition in 1981.

    His first solo show Paradise of evil was held in 1986. Since then he has taken part in several group and one-man exhibits even at bars and restaurants in the hope of getting his work known.

    He moved to Brasília and in 1987 enrolled in the Center of creative Achievement - CRESÇA, where he studied drawing under Glênio Bianchetti.

    He subsequently attended the Rio de Janeiro Visual Arts School - EAV Lage Park, tutored by Charles Watson and Beatriz Milhazes.

    He is an avant-garde artist, involved in research and experimentation. Lately he has explored wide spaces which he colors with pigments and binders.

    Three-dimension objects and abstractions are his latest experiments.

    "Geraldo digs deep into human issues renders them timeless, maybe moves back in time to seek the origin of this chaos in which everything seems to be immersed at present."(Three Characters and a Birdcage - daily O Estado do Maranhão, 12/7/1987 - Jesus Santos - São Luís, MA).


    JOSÉ JESUS SANTOS

    Painter and engraver, his debut was at the Main Hall of the Maranhão Literary Academy in 1967.

    In 1971 he took part in the 1 st Northeastern New Artists Exhibition and in 1972 he showed at the 2nd Art Biennial of Bahia, both held in Salvador.


    JOÃO DE DEUS

    João de Deus is a portrait artist, landscape painter and religious painter.

    He began his activities early as a self-taught artist.

    He drew a crayon portrait of Governor Urbano Santos who promised him the fare to the South of further his studies.

    Since Urbano Santos died before he could do so, bookkeeper Pinheiro Lopes de Sousa gave him a third-class ticket on an Ita steamer to Rio de Janeiro. Without any agovernment aid, he enrolled at the Fine Arts Promotion Society of the School of Arts and Crafts. He studied painting and set design with honors during all four years he was there.

    In 1925 he ranked first in Anatomical Drawing and received a Silver Medal for his achievement at the School of Arts and Crafts of Rio de Janeiro.

    On his return to Maranhão he painted the ceiling of the São Luís Cathedral of the See in 1927, which he himself restored in 1954. It is his masterpiece.

    In 1954 he decorated the 1st Maranhão State Fair built at Deodoro Square in São Luís (MA).

    He did portraits for some prominent politicians of his time.

    He also painted Saint José de Ribamar Church in the town of that name at São Luís Island, St. An-thony Church in Paranaíba (PI), Our lady of Conception Church at Barra de Maratanam, and the parish church of Retiro de Boa Esperança in Piauí.

    His work can also be appreciated at the Public Library, the Public Archives, and the State Visual Arts Museum of Maranhão.

    He is mentioned in the Brazilian Dictionary of Artists of the Ministry of Education and Culture, and in the Biographical Dictionary of Painters of All Times by Adrião Neto, Teresina (PI).

    "All I know and wish to state for the sake of justice is that our cathedral is again impressive as a repository of our traditions, and that its decorator was a humble but worthy native son of Maranhão named João de Deus." (Father Ribamar Carvalho, daily O Combate, 6/9/1954, p. 1 - São Luís, MA).

    "Well, dear reader. Hurry there today and admire that magnificent, that wonderful, that sublime interior decoration adorning the old cathedral. You will find there the art, the soul and the glory of a Maranhão Negro from Brejo dos Anapurus who one day got off the third-class compartment of an "Ita" boat in Rio de Janeiro with barely 500 "réis"in his pocket, suffered the hardships of a big city, studied tirelessly, and is now the great painter João de Deus, who will be 58 on the 24th."(A Painter of Churches - Nonnato Masson, daily Pacotilha - O Globo, 6/22/1954, p. 4 - São Luís, MA).


    JOÃOSINHO TRINTA

    Carnival designer Joãosinho Trinta is an artisti not solely engaged in working with conventional materials or in small and average dimensions. He reinvents his own space where people, masks, cans, everything is used to convey the theme story he must develop.

    A native of the Maranhão state capital, be soon moved to Rio de Janeiro and joined the Classical Dance School of the Municipal Opera House. There he shares the public´s acclaim with already famous dancers. The results of his efforts are seen at major theaters like Copacabana, Glória, Maison de France, Ipanema, Ginástico, Opinião and Alaska.

    As a set designer he decorated several Carnival galas at the Municipal Opera House and teh copacabana Palace Hotel.


    LUÍS CARLOS LIMA SANTOS

    A sef-taught artist, Luís Carlos took several courses in modeling and sculpture throughout his career, devo-ting himself for some time to painting ( mythical ) and tapestry.

    His favorite media are clay, cement, resin, and wood chips, which he works into thick layers blended with glue.

    His works are found at the Visual Arts Museum, at the Guhernatorial Masion, at São Luis Citty Hall, and in several private collection in Maranhão.


    MARÇAL ATHAÍDE

    A painter and co-founder of the Mirarte group in 1982 with Fernando Mendonça. He made his solo debut in 1984 at the Eney Santana Gallery in São Luís.

    He moved to Rio de Janeiro encouraged by Rubens Gerchman and was introduced to art dealer Jean Borghici, who helped his get started.

    It was a time for study and exhibiting his work. He took part in the 8th National fine Arts Exhibition in 1985; the 1st Art Exhibition of the Brazilian Oil Industry in 1986, winning first prize; the Maranhão Fine arts Exhibition sponsored by the Maranhão State Culture Department in 1987; in the 1st Maranhão Group Exhibition on Drawings in 1988, at eney santana Gallery. His solo shows were held at jean Borghici Gallery in Rio de Janeiro in 1989; at the Bahia Museum of Modern Art in 1990; at the São Luís Caixa Econômica Federal's Cultural Center in 1991, an d the National Antiquarians Association, France-Brazil House, Rio de Janeiro, in 1992.

    Art critics Walmir Ayala and Ferreira Gullar describe him as an artist of everyday life in big cities, their fast pace and busy streets.

    His works are found in major private collections like those of Gilberto Chateaubriand, João Satamini, and Jose Bonifácio de Oliveira; and in public collections in the Rio de Janeiro Museum of Modern Art and the Niterói Museum of Modern Art.

    He currently lives in Rio de Janeiro.


    "The torch lit by Balla, which throbs during the long night of totalitarianism amid the ruins of Guernica, relity by Antonioni in Eclipse to kill the darkness, also shines in Athaíde'snights. By projecting his lone characters under its light, which the painter reduces to beans of colorful ectoplasm running around either for fear or pleasure, he is perhaps repeating the actions of his ancient counterparts who projected their own onto cave wall to exorcise their fears and ghosts." (Jean Boghici, December 1987 - Catalog of Marçal Athaíde's exhibit at jean Boghici Gallery, August 1989, RJ).


    MARIA LUISA MORAES RÊGO ARAUJO
    A Painter, she started her training in 1970 at the Art Research Center under Bruno Tausz. This tireless worker and devoted professional offset her late start in the arts through a powerful and permanent dedicantion to a body of work that ranks her among the best contemporary Brazilian artists.

    Her paintings reveal a dark word of peculiar human characters emerging from the underwold and denoun-cing social issues.


    MIGUEL VIEGA
    He graduated in drawing and plastic arts from the federal university of Maranhão. Miguel Veiga made his debut in 1979 with his catrevagem ( Debris ) exibit. This was followed by Lazeira ( Disgrace ). Again in 1979; Arri-bação ( Arrival ), São Luis 1980.


    MONDÊGO
    Mondêgo first became known as a painter in 1974 while still a teenager, in a vigorous phase of folkoric and regiona-list themes. His activities also included classical ballet, acting and set designing.

    A restless person, he explored the erotic sensualism of the mude, showing his work in solo and collective exibiti-ons.

    In 1987 he moved to Naples(Italy) where he studied whit the master Luigi Eboli at the Tavalozza Napolitana School. He produced his most vibrant impressionist paintings during that period.

    He returned to São Luísin 1989, where he lives now, portraying the urban landscape in bright, cheerful colors with short, tense brushstrokes.

    One of the most expressive and mature painters of the new generation, he paints folkloric scenes of Maranhão and buildings of the towns of São Luís and Alcântara, with a modern touch. His paintings show a contemporary urban landscape full of movement and light, contrasting old and new in a nostalgic vein.

    "Mondêgo's coloring is unrestrained, light plays from one side to the other, the loose, reticent brushstrokes are thickly but smoothly - O Estado do Maranhão newspaper, 10/18/1992 - Jesus Santos, São Luís, MA).


    NAGY LAJOS
    Lajos studied at hungary´s University college of aesthetics e philosophy and at the university college of art, in Budapest.

    His painting is analytical and critical. He paints fastidiously, introducing into the composition with extraordi-nary perceptiveness elements which emplasize reliefs and textures.

    He dedicated himself to gathering artists togethe in studios and association.


    PÉRICLES ROCHA

    Péricles Rocha took up art at an early age. With a scholarship granted by the Governor of Maranhão, Dr. José Sarney, he studied sculpture at the National School of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro from 1967 to 1971.

    On his return to São Luís, he and other artists opened the Japiaçu Arts Center. This center was run by Prof. Rosa Mochel in the annex of the Benedito Leite Public Library. He exhibited in the São Luís City Exhibition in 1971, trough the Mirarte Project in 1974, at the Eney Santana Gallery in 1978 and 1979, at the Federal Savings Bank in 1980, at the Maranhão History & Art Museum in 1984, 1986, 1988 and 1990, at the May Collective Exhibition in 1991 and 1992, and at the Cultural Center gallery of the Federal Savings Bank in 1992.

    Elsewhere in Brazil he took part in collective exhibitionx at the São Paulo National Biennial Exhibition in 1974 (with sculptures) and in 1976; at the 3rd Meeting of Artists of the Federal District in 1976; at the National Plastic Arts Exhibition of rio de Janeiro in 1979 and 1980; at the Goiânia Plastic Arts Exhibition in 1976 and at the 1st Center-West Exhibition of Design and Engraving in 1979.

    He held solo exhibitions of his work in Rio de Janeiro with exhibitions at the galleries Sérgio Milliet in 1977, Ana Maria Niemeyer in 1981, Matias Marcier at the Rio Design Center in 1992, and at the Laura Alvim House of Culture in 1993; in São Paulo at the Portal Gallery in 1980; in Brasília at the galleries Eucatexpo in 1977, Galeria A in 1978, Parnaso galeria de Arte in 1979 and 1980, at the Cultural Foundation gallery in 1985, at the Minitry of Culture gallery (inaugurating) in 1986, at the Cavalier Gallery in 1992 and the Espaço SEBRAE gallery in 1993.

    In 1978 he illustrated the book Marimbondos de Fogo and the cover of the book Norte das Águas, by José Sarney - 2nd edition, in 1980. In the same year he produced the cover and illustrations of the book Poeta do Absurdo, by de Orlando Tejo.

    Abroad, he exhibibited in Munich, Suttgart, Rome, Madri, Athens and Florence, between 1978 and 1982.

    He designed and sculpted altars and painted sacred themes on the side walls of the shrine of Our Lady of Carme, patron saint of the town of Benedito Leite (MA), inspired by legendry of the Balsas and Parnaíba rivers which made such an impression on bim during his childhood and adolescence.

    He studied at the "Instituto Lorenzo de Médici", in Florence (Italy) in 1982.

    He is the leading painter of Maranhão mythology. A sculptor by training and a designer by nature, his works tell us about legends, about rural fantasies, about the drem world os nature, as if in each work he is recreating the 'stori-es"and "tales"heard in bis childhood.

    "His work as a painter does not deviate from this idiom of lines and figures, although it seems to me that painting makes bim return with renewed vigor to the primitive theme of srmadillos and anteaters, using other means particularly suited to this language, such as pictorial material, the brush stroke and a certain special way of using light and transparencies. His dialect has the strength and mystery of primitive voices reaching us both from the depths of the forest and from the depths of the soul"- (Ferreira Gullar) - Exhibition catalog - Péricles Rocha, Recent Paintings - ECO/92 - Rio de Janeiro.


    ROSA WAQUIM
    Studied under Prof. Amina de Paula Barros and at the national Museum of fine arts under Prof. Oswaldo Teixeira.

    She uses techniques varying from draftsmanship to painting and also stained glass.


    TELÉSFORO RÊGO
    Teléforo studied painting with Prof. José de Paula Barros from 1914 to 1916; in 1924 he took part in the 1st New Artists Exhibition which he organized together with Artur Marinho, Newton Pavão, rubens Damasceno, Osmar Palhano de Jesus and others. He was deeply involved in his town's cultural life.

    In 1914 he exhibited at the December Exhibition; in 1944 at the Artur Marinho Exhibition and, in 1945, at the 1st Maranhão Art Fair, where he won 1st place with the painting Beach with Coconut Palms (State Government prize). His painting Barreira de São Francisco illustrated the cover of the Esso Magazine in 1949. He also designed the State Seal for the administration of Governor Martins de Almeida.

    His work may be seen in the gallery of the Palácio dos Leões at the São Luís City Hall, and in the Maranhão Aca-demy of Letters.

    He did not confine himself to painting in his studio and to teaching art, at which he distinguished himself, but also painted stage scenery, restores pictures and statues and produced allegorical floats for Carnival.

    He dedicated himself wholeheartedly to his cultural and artistic life.

    He painted urban scenes of São Luís, viewed with elegance and simplicity, excelling in water colors.

    "Knowing how to draw true multicolored poems out of paints, he
    give us an impression, at times, of a poet who has exchanged the lyre for brush". Edgard Proença, a writer from Pará in the O Estado do Pará newspaper, copied in Pacotilha - O Globo, 2/20/1952, p. 4, São Luís, MA).


    ..."The water-colorist delighted me, his coloring is perfectly realistic and suggestive, as much when he transposes to the canvas tropical landscapes and intelligently chosen urban retreats, as when he tears from the imagination admirable notions, revealing the emotive soul of a well-trained and solid artistic talent. This is all the more extraordinary when it is known that Telésforo had no teacher, that he is self-taught, a born artist". (Edson Cunha, president of the Parnaibana Society of cultural Expression in "An artist's guide"- Pacotilha - O Globo, 3/28/1951, p. 2 - São Luís, MA).


    TERCÍLIO BORRALHO
    Tercílio Borralho began studying the arts in 1963 at the studio of the painter
    Espírito Santo.
    In 197l he went to Olinda where took the Art History course at the Pernambuco Museum of Contemporary Art.

    Upon his return to São Luís in 1972, he exhibited at a collective exhibition in the gallery of the newspaper O Impar-cial.

    In 1973 he took up figurative painting, portraying women, friends and members of his family.

    In 1974 he took part in the Pre-Biennial Exhibition held by the state government.

    "At present, his theme is women workers backed by the old, bankrupt factories scattered sround the neigbborbood where be lives; women with big, sad eyes, faces marked by deep despondency, long and subtlysco-red necks ". (Tercílio: Expression and Color - Roldão Lima).


    THEATERS:
    São Luís started getting modern perspectives in urban projects, but there is an old part of the city, of majestic 2 floor buildings carefully lapidated. The old center preserves the city's history in each detail of the belvederes, balconies with iron rail. Three theaters take part of the architetonic assemblage which fascinate and seduce those who walk around the streets, squares and avenues. Nowaday the most imposing and modern one of Latin America is Artur Azevedo Theater, which was completely remodeled in 1993.
    With old architecture and front wall, one more honored to two contemporary artistis whom take maranhense culture to rest of the country, Alcione Nazaré and João do Vale theaters. It's worth visiting them at any time of the day.


    FOLKLORE:
    People in São Luis are very cheerful and festive. Carnival and the June Festivals turn the whole city into an enormous party. During Carnival thousands of foliões ( buffoons ) go down the streets, organized in gangs were they all wear similar costumes, singing the sambas they compose along with the accompaniement of vaious per-cussion instruments.

    Thousands of others, however, prefer to dance isolatedly or in small groups - they are specially those who were initiated in the pary in their early childhood. they come dressed as fofões, with their colored costumes and masks, products of our popular imagination, that usually show animals of our fauna and legends. Those who do not have fun on the streets can do it in the balls promoted bourgeoisie clubs, which can last nights in a row and usually end up in the seashore. The preparation for the great june Festival barely waits the end of carnival to start. Right after ir, Bumba-meu-Boi groups and quadrilles begin their rehearsals for their great performance. When time comes, the month of june, São Luis is transformed into a huge arraial ( country village )- tents decorated with colorful flags are set in all the corners of the city, squares and boulevard. Many neighbourhoods have their own Bumba-meu - Boi and quadrilles. People come to the arraial to sing, dance, drink and eat dishes made ot of corn, porridges, coconut and peanut sweets and many others featuring the Maranhese ar of cooking.

    It is the time to appreciate the richness and color of the hats, shirt-fronts and aprons worn by Bumba-Meu-Boi dancers; their garments full of ribbons, feathers, colored glass and plumes artistically and carefully composed in floral patterns or images of catholic saints. There are nearly one hundred Bumba-meu -Boi dance groups in São Luis, which preserve and reproduce the basic characterístics of this popular act originated in Portugal and blended here with African and Indian elements.

    Party in São Luis, however, cannot be reduced to carnival and the June Festival. There are parties all the year round. We have the Tambor de Criola ( Creole Drums - an African-rooted dance ), Tambor de Mina ( a local variati-on for the African candomblé ), the Holy Spirit Festival, São Pedro, Cacuriá and the Dança do Caroço ( the Seed Dance )... Besides, of course, the reggae, theis Jamaican rhytm that gained so much popularity that became a tourist attaction.



    EVENTS CALENDAR

    ....AND NOW, CELEBRATIONS AND PARTIES:

    Since the early colonial time we held a history plenty of celebrations and parties that, according to the epoch, varied a lot in both, their ways of performing and enjoying them and also in the reactions they produced.
    There was, in the past, many prejudices related to the popular celebrations and parties that, for a long time, suffered severe sensorship from authorities.

    The passing of years determined changes in the ways of participating and playing the carnival.
    From the time in which we couldn´t talk of a tipically maranhense carnival, we passed to fake the carioca way of playing carnival. From there on there was a period in which every year several samba schools spread out in São Luís, as well as in the country towns.
    Today, samba schools are clearly declining in São Luís, while is being experienced the retaken of local car-nival traditions which comprehend groups of merry-makers, indian tribes and other groups that associate to the carnival local ways of partying.
    On the other hand, São Luís Adhered to the national mania of performing the carnival out of date. It is called Marafolia and lasts for three days on the second half of October, gathering round thousands of merry-makers at the Litorânea Avenue, a huge easy moving space with enough parking lots and efficient security measures .
    Today there are other celebrations related to the nativity period. Once culture, dinamic expression of life and tridimensional mirror of what must be exteriorized as sign of vitality, is constantly recicling, it adjusts to the passing of time its recreative running. Nevertheless, the ludic people's soul remains the same, as shown in their dancing, festivities and in their so many ways of gathering plays.
    During the carnival there are no more cordões(raws), cursos(courses), entrudos(throwing each other water, flour, carnival ribbons, rotten eggs, etc), robberies, joker cards, flower and confetti battles. And almost were extinct the figures of cruz-diabo, colombina, pierrô and fofão. Nevertheless, today efforts are being done by the Associa-ção Maranhence de Blocos Carnavalescos( Maranhense Carnival Bands Association) with the enthusiastic support of the Fundação da Cultura, Desporto e Turismo da Prefeitura (City House Foundation for Sports and Tourism) in 1995, in an attempt to revive ancient maranhense carnivals, especially street carnivals.
    The Casinha da Roça( Country Little House) suffers an extinction process. Popular clubs , where mask- wearing lone women used to dance, no more exist. They were highly worth and very popular, and now belong to the remembrances: the very missing Mask dancing parties.
    By the end of the century, there was in São Luís so many Carnival Associations, and most of them were or-ganized upon family relationship or main leaders friendship.
    Horse riding, hall dancings, round gatherings, masquerades, were all common during the colonial time, but as time passed they went slowly fading , or loosing their characteristics until disappearing completely due to a deep transmutation. It is said that the Carimbó(a portuguese rooted song and dance), that found a settling Place in the State of Pará, appeared firstly in Maranhão, as well as the Capoeira, registed folk mark of Bahia State, florished first here, but with noy enough strength to get fixed.
    Even when almost disappearing of our local traditions, in modern times, are the Tambor-de Taboca, the Lindô, Caminha-Verde, Guará, Cabeça-de-Bagre, and the festivals of nativity period: Belém Daughters, Jerusalém or Judah Daughters, Shepherds, Girl Shepherds, Kings, Pastorals, Mangers and Straw burning.
    But the Cacuriá, which for many years wintered as if it were dead, came back to stay plenty of grace and vigour.
    The Tambor-de Crioula and the Tambor-de Mina were constantly present as a sym bol of resistance under the rhythm of pungas(ceremonial dances and chants) and saracoteios(hips swinging).

    To a group of people, long and hopefully fecundated in the most legitimate maranhence Cultural traditions and legally born in the year 1985, we owe the revitalization of a great part of our local folklore. Since that time so many parafolk groups organized by schools, neighborhood associations and private individuals, give continuity to the process of revitalization through emulations and challenges produced by dissenters.
    The 'illustrated' appropiation of popular themes caused the gradual social raising of our'festival plays and jokes', at the level of the only applauding audience and by the part of the ones who directly participate or promote them. Popular themes are source for endless plástic arts, theatrical, musical and dance inspiration, being the for-mers, the most vigorous and vivid among the popular festival expressions of the country.
    The group that appeared in 1985 and gathered round the Boizinho Barrica, consolidated its purpose with the creation of the Companhia Barrica de Teatro de Rua (Street Theatre Barrica Company), responsible for the roots' searching of most of our popular culture, and, yet, it is responsible for the appearing of other folk group: the Bicho Terra(Earthly Creature).

    Barrica should call itself Boizinho Tonel(Barrel Little-ox), evoking the fun-play that Sapinho(Little toad, nickname of a well known folktales teller), used to include in carnival festivals, as an appendix of the Cruzeiro team of merry-makers of Madre Deus(a São Luís downtown famous quarter), but at the end was named Boizinho Barrica(a very little ox-like marionette played by a dancing man) because of its size.
    A notorious fact is that Barrica(Little ox-like marionette), eventhough being ox, is not Bumba(a general name for all folk expressions performing the dancing of an imitation of ox) in the sense used in the Terreiros(site were are performed dances and rituals) that contitutes his ludic kingdom. The Barrica, though vinculated to the ancient traditions, tells stories, sings and bewiches with its poetry, musical harmonies and educated voices. In the shows it performs, stilizes the four voices(accents in which different ox folk tales are sung) of the ox: the Divino Espírito Santo, the Coco, Chegança, Lelê, Tambor de Crioula, and so on; in an endless beauty trip in search of Tainahakã, the dancing would-be central star of a constellation, once its appearance is the sign of it. And the Barrica boi started to give birth various folk groups like the Bicho-Terra; and the Madre-Deus quarter children created the Barriquinha, who is well versed in beauty and promisses much more. So, undoubtedly, the Boizinho Barrica belongs to the world, to Maranhão, to São Luís and, mainly, to Madre Deus.
    We would like to acknowledge the several youngsters who searched and gathered diverse mani-festations of our culture, backed by the Departamento de Assuntos Culturais da Universidade Federal do Maranhão (Federal University of Maranhão Cultural Subjects Department) , which ended up in a series of monographies(some of them published in books), theatre and dance shows, films, documentaries, photos and panflets. ( ok ) 4

    Also the Laborarte -Laboratório de Expressões Artísticas-(Arts Lab), founded in 1970, under the leadership of Tácito Borralho, and today directed by Nelson Brito, has contributed to the maintenance and divulgation of this art.

    Américo Azevedo, deeply versed in popular culture and author of the best book on Bumbas, is also promoteur and powerfull creator of the Cazumba Show. Mrs. Zelinda Lima is another important Bumba sponsor. José Sarney, then State Governor ,opened the Palacio dos Leões to appreciate the presentation of the Barrica Boi without ceremonies, as if it were in his Terreiros.
    The Reggae, original from Jamaica, arrived in São Luís with full strenght and ways for settling. Geographical and etnographical similitudes approach the Caribean and São Luís cultures. For this reason, long ago, caribean african rooted rhythms like mambo, salsa, merengue and lambada, gained great acceptance in the Island. With the ever raising use of the Radiola(Stereo set of high potency speakers), popular dance-gathering meetings are common.
    By the end of the 70s, the first reggae records were played here, and in the next decade it was definitely incorporated to the City's festivities. Soon, it was played in daily radio broadcastings, gaining adepts, braking hearts and minds and keeping a faithful team of funs.
    At the moment, reggae is confined to the peripheries and appreciated mainly by negros, but it is creating its own space in other social layers by the introduction of local Themes, so that it is possible to talk of Jamaican reggae and São Luís reggae, while in Jamaica the reggae developed far beyond their creators, Bob Marley, Jimmy Cliff, Peter Tosh, in São Luís remained in its reggae very roots, which keeps together a mass of funs that enjoys it delici-ously. The so called 'pedradas' (a set of selected and starlet reggae songs) are very popular in the peripheries where exclusive 'pedra"parties are organized for the rejoycement of funs. They call this presentations emulating and naming foreing titles with local expressions such as Melô da Maioba, Mel
    ô do Maracanã, Melô do Arrastão , Melô do Negão(Melô refers to the melody or song preferred or sung by the dwellers of the peripherial quarters Maioba, Maracanã, etc, or to the persons, i.e. negão, a nick name for ne-gro).
    Every year are promoted in São Luis Festivals of Poetry, Chorus, Popular Maranhense Music and Curió(bird sin-ging), books and plant fairs, agroindustrial expositions, and big parties in hundred terreiros, in the Casa do Nagô e Casa De Minas (House of Nagô and Minas), the Semana do Indio, do Negro, do Folclore( festival of the indian, negro and folklore lasting one week each), and whatever is possible to imagine.
    If time and chances coincident with the festival calendar are available, the visitor can move to Alcântara for the Divino and São Benedito Festivals, or to São Gonçalo party in the Baixada's cities, or to Arari, for the Festa da Melancia (Watermelon Festival), to the Nativity Festival at Guimarães, or to the Fish Festival in the cities of Viana and Penalva.
    Main religious festivals are São Benedito, da Conceição and Santa Severa processions; and dos Remé-dios. Also da Quaresma, do Encontro and do Senhor Morto, none of them , though, comparable to the pomp and circunstance of the XIX century processions, filling the streets with music, fireworks and rich costumes, pen-nant-decorated squares full of tables, tents, news offered by vendors, gambling, carrousels, audits... in short, an extensive list of temptations and appeal to the multitude that crowds churches during the novena, chants and ser-mons and that, because they were many or not very redeemed, spread afterwards on the space where small or-chestras played, the colored lights shone and fireworks and balloons lit the skies.

    The first calendar run in São Luís by the year 1848, accounted 20 processions and 47 festivals at the City church. One of them , without doubt the most concurred, inspired many writers as it the case of Cesar Marques, Trajano Galvão, Graça Aranha, Aloísio Azevedo and João Francisco Lisboa, who published a column in which described graciously the 1851 festival.
    From Remedios quarter, former Ponta do Romeu moistured by the Anil River, lets go down to the opposite side of the era city where, lifted to a sort of Bacanga River watch tower, was placed the Ponta de Santo Amaro, which originated the Madre de Deus quarter(actually written and pronounced Madredeus), noble born because of its functions of educacional centre, Jesuits Convent and Governors Palace; and still keeps noble because it was legitimized by the population as the container of the strongest cultural local traditions, the res publica we are so proud of.
    The deserved chapter which, for not being here, is certain debt for eventual payment in the future, concerns this playful, vast and autonomous territory, to whose enthusiasm for remarkable deeds entire reason is given.
    With its poets, composers, singers, repentistas (at once prose improvisors), artisans, animators and figurants, Madredeus cheers up the São João June Festival with one the best Bois of the Island( Popular Dance where main character is a man playing under a ox figure), and animates the carnival with the Turma do Quin-to(The fifth merry-makers team), tunned with lights and winner of moral battles and superchanpionships.
    The Madredeus physical area is easyly traced as bigger than the original Ponta de Santo Amaro limits, but its sentimental size spreads out to all places, new or old, poor or rich, in this city, serving for human dwellings. During the festival time, huge crowds of people come down to Madredeus from all the edges of the county. Alone or in groups, all concour to Madredeus, the sublime Mother Lady today sang by its poets, revered by Silva Serrão and Constantino de Sá as splendour and aurora of life in the past. Its clearly accepted that the Maranhense favora-ble taste for parties and its contagious ludic vocation are alive. And it can be probed looking at the festivals yearly calendar that reflects our soul full of joy which removed the limiting barriers interposed between the sacred and profane.
    The best time, plenty of collective joy and enthusiasm entacing the whole city is June, from the beginning to the end: starting with Santo Antônio Parties(the wedding promoteur saint) to São Pedro( the festival finishing saint) in whose honor is made a marine procession.
    São João with his lamb, leads, absolute, quarter parties, quadrilhas, cocos, tambor-de-crioula, tambor-de mina and, specially, the Bumba-meu-boi, after months of practice, is blessed next to the round practice, in repetitive mixed latin chants, in front of the anxious audience and the saints and the cachaça, the godfathers, the woman prayer holding her "arruda" ( small branch used on the ear for protection)or a little broom palm, in the night of June 23rd..
    At that magic night, with firework and much shine, the city is turned into a free territory spreading its fronti-ers far away in the sea.
    Then we can't talkanymore about São Luís, but about the island from where, no matter what street, quar-ter , county or path, comes the "Boi" , from São José de Ribamar, Maioba, Mata or Maracanã.
    From other cities and towns, also come Bois to participate in the festival, but usually after the 23th, because privilegies are given to the São Luís Bois, their born place where they have to die.
    According to the Boi's sotaque(Intonation of the singing), everything is different: the rhythm, the instru-ments, the vests, the melody compass, the partisans and also the size and appearance of oxs. The ones who know Boi, can tell you at once only by looking at them, their origing, style, accent -if it belongs to the island or if it is de Matraca, de Zabumba or de Orquestra boi , or if it comes from Pindaré.
    The beauty of the songs of Zabumba, the tambourines, wooden rattles, the beauty of the tunes poetry and the circunvolutions of the Boi, the policromy of the vests, the partisans very well disguised with their hats and brilliant chests-shields, added the nation of Paisanos and Mutucas, are very important persons and trustable peo-ple.
    In June, plazas, streets, alleys and crossroads, became Terreiros. Along these are placed baderoles, ariri palms, stalls and bonfires, keeping the all-time reserved place for the boi's dancing. In order to install the contagi-ous joy after its arrival, the tunes of Lá Vai ,lá vai, prenouncing its pityful departure, they sing the farewell chant:
    There it goes
    there it goes,
    it was her, the housewife
    who asked me to come;
    blew off the candles
    'cause its firewood
    is good enough
    to light the terreiro.

    My dear ma'am, sweep the floor
    with manjericão gai',
    'cause the boi flounce's white
    and it's going to rug out the floor.

    Goodbye is a sad word
    and it's the only one I have
    now I won't forget to remember you
    my tone engraved will be
    in your heart.

    I leave my gardener remembrances
    yellow rose and manjericão flower
    I'm going to attend other's request
    for my batallion white rose was sent.

    The real Bois, the ones who take seriously their playing roles, have their own obligations once they can't transfer them. They are fulfilled with content as a devocional treaty. Miraculous São João works, born from promis-ses made to him or from the explicit desire of honoring him, the Bois also recognize themselves as São Pedro and São Marçal devotees, to whom must pay particular obligations.
    That is why, at the very Saint's day, and much before the dawn has come, his crescent bonfire and shinny batallions of devotees, look for the São Pedro terreiro, by the capel of Madredeus. It is an event of indescribable beauty, both bois surrounded by thousands of devotees arriving to dance in São Pedro's honor, fulfilling the natural stage
    from which one can look and admire the dancing far down Boi together with people.
    The next day, at dawn, dedicated to São Marçal, a parade changes the vehicles route, and makes the João Paulo quarter a site for the major Matraca Bois concentration. They play jokes and enjoy play-challenging former rivalries, as if they were enraged.
    At last, the Boi becames remembrances, tears run over the faces and, he bewitches himself and becomes hope: next year, at a well known date, lighted in new brigths and with the same moving hips and circu-mvolutions, comes back to the terreiro and enchants and dances, following his fate, as determined by São João.


    LITERATURE:THESTRENGTH OF A VOCATION

    It won't be exagerated to sustain that Maranhão has, for a long time, the literary vocation as distinctive mark of its people. Great representative names of Brazilian literature were born in this State, starting with Odorico Men-des, one of the most important humanists of the XIX century. He, besides his roll in politics and journalism, was specially dedicated to the translation in verses of two classical masterpieces of western literature: the Homeric poems and the whole Vergil poetry.
    Odorico Mendes is the ancient representative character of the Maranhense Group of intelectuals, compo-sed by Gonçalves Dias, the first great brazilian romantic poet; Sotero dos Reis, master of Portuguese language; Gomes de Sousa, scientist internationally well known; Sousândrade,"the unique" whose works were appropriately recognized only in this century; Trajano Galvão, pioneer of the negro poetry; Gentil Braga, poet and prose writer; Joaquim Serra, translator, poet and abolitionist leader; and many others whose mentioning would be tiresome.
    Next generations continued producing great literary values to the country: Teófilo Dias, Raimundo Correia. Artur and Aluísio Azevedo, Celso Magalhães, Coelho Neto, Humberto de Campos, Viriato Correia, Maranhão Sobrinho, and a plethora of notorious ones in our days as the prose writers Josué Montello, Rodrigues Marques, José Louzeiro, Conceição Neves Aboud; poets like Manoel Caetano Bandeira de Mello, Lago Burnett. Odylo Costa Filho, Ferreira Gular, among others.
    The poet and ex-president José Sarney, is also a vigorous prose writer. After two excellent short stories collected in Norte das Águas (North of the Waters), published the novel O Dono do Mar, praised as work of excep-tional quality among those that refer to similar topics.
    Three great poets decided to live in São Luis: Bandeira Tribuzi, Nauro Machado and José Chagas. And, among the prose writers living here, it is worth remembering Ubiratan Teixeira, Lucas Baldez, Waldemiro Viana. In Brasilía live the prose writer Clovis Sena and short story writer Ariel Vieira Moraes. Lucy Teixeira, poet and prose writer, lives in São Paulo, but visits periodically the maranhense capital.
    -1-
    Among younger generations, the poets Viriato Gaspar, Fernando Braga, Luis Augusto Cassas, José Maria Nascimento, Laura Amélia Damous, Roberto Kenard, Paulo Melo Sousa and Marconi Caldas, can be mentioned.
    Dagmar Destêrro easily flows from prose to poetry, as well as Ivan Sarney and Ewerton Neto.
    After a staying in Recife, returned to São Luís Manoel Lopes, lovely city poet and Joaquim Itapary, poet and prose writer.
    Maranhão keeps steadily confident to its major destiny, its unavoidable vocation. It is a land of important essayist like Franklin de Oliveira, Osvaldino Marques and of the unforgetable one Erasmo Dias.
    Nevertheles, the major maranhense literary expression is poetry. That is why it should be rigth to say that São Luís is a city of poets. Morever, São Luís also has been chanted by its poets.
    We will have some samples in the next lines, short but interesting.

    TO MARANHÂO:
    Simão Estácio da Silveira, portuguese navigator and first President of São Luís Chamber, said in 1624:
    'I declare that this is the best land of the world where natives are very strong and long term living, and that it is already realized that among the places where portuguese have been, Brazil is the best, and Maranhão is the best of Brazil".
    TO THE ISLAND:
    'I will always have in green
    seagulls and salt
    the remembrance does not lose
    the initial island'. (From poet and journalist Lago Brunett, in 1952)
    AND/OR
    Sorrounded by waters and dreams
    by glory and tides
    the island is mostly embraced by poetry
    (Bandeira Tribuzi, Maranhense Poet.)
    FOR THE TUNE OF ARRIVAL:
    This is the city
    that hols the bishop
    and the Ribeirão fountain
    Inside it, my heart and I.
    (Manuel Lopes, Maranhense Poet.)
    TO OUR WAY OF LIVING:
    Out of rocks and tiles,
    belvederes and alleys
    mansions and towers,
    a city is made:
    and, mostly, of soul.
    (Bandeira Tribuzi, Maranhense Poet) -3-
    TO THE FOUNTAINS:
    Stones and thirsty ships
    crying in the eternity.
    Thousand sailors arrived
    the fountains water drunk
    and went back.
    Caravels departed
    leaving back endless cries
    dawn tiny ligths,
    mournings, miracles,
    in the antares swinging.
    (José Sarney, Maranhense poet and prose writer.)
    TO THE TALES:
    THE MIRACLE OF GUAXENDUBA
    She was then seen, blessing our war with her hand
    She, Our Lady, in her lap holding the Holy Lad,
    had finally come to help us fight for our land

    A shining sword, we saw, her hands held on
    (O, Land o'mine, if such desire even the virgin had,
    what wouldn't do for you your dearest son?)
    (Humberto de Campos, Maranhense poet and writer)

    ANA JANSEN CHARIOT
    Ghosts that will never subdue
    from wandering through the streets
    like those of Ana Jansen
    in moonlit nights.
    (José Chagas)
    -4-
    TEARS PALACE TALE
    Through your palace
    of warm weeping
    the Lord of chains
    may still pass.
    (José Chagas)


    HISTORIC MONUMENTS:

    FOUNTAINS :

    The purity and abundance of our waters have been intensively praised throughout the times. Among those who have praised them, we have Claude d'Abeville, who was amazed by our healthy springs. Simão Estácio da Silveira not only found our waters pure and crystalline, but attributed to them medicinal properties and great efficiency in the treatment and cure of fevers and other illnesses.

    The existence of fountains in the city is due to the needs of water supply for the population. Many houses had private wells, and some served the neighbors in addition to the owner himself. Even so, other means of getting water were necessary. It was needed in the supply of ships and boats, in construction and many other public and private activities.

    Many of those fountains do not exist anymore - this is the case of Mamoim Fountain (built in 1796), the Açougue Fountain ('butchery', near the City Market) and Apicum Fountain, formerly named Quinta ('Farm') Fountain. Other ones, however, still exist:


    1.1 - Fonte do Bispo (Bishop's Fountain)

    This fountain was built in the 17th century. It is located at the end of Rua das Crioulas and today is nothing more than a ruined well, completely unprotected (and, as far as we know, not included in any plans to give its historical importance back).

    The story of the monument is related to Dom Frei Timóteo do Sacramento, third Bishop, who was in charge of the diocese of Maranhão from 1691 to 1700. Frei Timóteo had a rather audacious and intolerant character and decided in 1697, to visit all his parishioners in order to check their obedience to the dogma of the Church. As a result of this, many processes, fines, imprisonments and deportations occurred, once the Bishop's diligence would not tolerate without rigorous punishments sins such as lassitude of habits, lust and concubinage.

    Such a long-reaching reprehension deeply bothered many people in town, including some civil and ecclesiastic authorities. Involved in this "religious war", Frei Timóteo excommunicated the Ouvidor-Geral (a very important position in the government), the Chief-Captain João Duarte, the Ministers of the Crown and, finally, the whole city. The Bishop also excommunicated Frei Manoel de São Boaventura, the local representative of the Pope himself, but Boaventura had already excommunicated Frei Timóteo.

    The Bishop was then confined in his own Palace (in São Thiago boulevard), guarded by soldiers who had orders not to allow him to leave or receive visits under any circumstances. After a few days, Frei Timóteo no longer had any food or drink in the house and begged the soldiers to let him go get some water. The soldiers ceded and he collected some water in the fountain, which was then named after him.


    1.2 - Fonte da Pedras (The Rocks Fountain)

    According to Father José de Moraes, in October 31st, 1615 the Portuguese commanded by Jerônimo de Albu-querque camped, after the final battle against the French, by the spring which would supply the Dutch with water during their rule, three years later. The chronicler also said that the Dutch are to be held responsible for the first construction of the fountain, which was "excellent and well founded".


    The fountain is located in front of Rua São João and sided by the hills of Rua do Mocambo and Rua da Inveja. It is a square surrounded by walls and it is the back of the old Santa Amélia Factory.

    The Fonte das Pedras is a wide space, filled with trees and simple, agreeable benches. Unfortunately, the au-thorities have not been treating the place with due attention - despite all the brass plates left by those who, with a simple painting, want nothing but an excuse to have their names written in the walls of the monument. None of the plates, however, bears the name of Governor Silveira and Colonel-Engineer Pereira Lago, who are responsible for the shape the place has today: a masonry front, paving, underground galleries, spillers and gargoyles. Those ornaments present the best Portuguese colonial style, confirmed by a brass shield with the very Portuguese five edges.

    1.3 - Fonte do Ribeirão

    The Fonte do Ribeirão, built in 1796, is located between Barrocas, Afogados and Ribeirão streets. It was started under orders of governor D. Fernando Antônio de Noronha (1792-8), known as a stupid, rude and pedantic man, according to César Marques.

    It seems that the monument was conceived with the same dimensions and finishing it has today. In August 13th, 1796, a report by Capitain José Luís da Rocha informs that the construction was rather advanced and a sum of a 'conto' and two hundred thousand 'réis' were needed to end it. This money would be for paying salaries, and the purchase of lime, bricks, pipes, cantaria rocks, gargoyles and others.

    Placed in a small square, the fountain is protected by walls. Its frontispiece is sided by two pillars with cornices on the tops and ornated by friezes. The floor the pillars are on shows both religious and pagan symbols. On the top of the construction there was a statues of Neptune which, after several mutilations, was eventually destroyed in the night of April 9th, 1995. Below, three iron-barred windows block the access to the underground tunnels. A little above the floor, five stone-sculpted gargoyles with brass spillers pour water into a slabbed, T-shaped reservoir. The overflow is drained by underground channels, which runs towards the old Cajú Beach.

    Several popular beliefs and legends are related to the Fonte do Ribeirão. Among them is the one of the huge ser-pent whose tail is under São Pantaleão Church. Another one is about the existence of tunnels connecting the pulpits of many churches - this would allow the priests to start a missal in Santo Antônio Church and finish it in the Carmo. Some people even say these tunnels were used for smuggling, slave traffic and other suspect businesses performed under the support of clericals.


    HOUSING:

    - Our way of living

    Remarkable urban development was seen in São Luís between the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th centuries. The streets were paved, the boulevards were gardened, trees were planted and the fountains are given not only utilitarian cares but decorative ones as well.

    The rich rural aristocracy and the flourishing urban commerce allow good taste and refinement in housing. The latest fashion of European centers is used here and life styles are luxurious and opulent. All this glamour would start declining only in the decade of 1870, and was definitely over at the time of the Abolishment of Slavery.

    During this splendorous period fashion shops sold varied and sophisticated goods and were frequented by the local society. The newspapers of that time prove this. In 1863 an advertisement of Cunha Machado & Braga, on Nazaré street, sold the following articles: embroidered petticoats, beautifully colored clothes of wool and silk, head ornaments, white gloves for men and women, elastic silk belts, Italian hats and others.

    The newspapers usually brought advertisements of hairdressers, photographers, watchmakers, architects and goldsmiths - frequently of French, Italian and Portuguese nationalities.

    Naturally, during this period of refinement São Luís experiments an era of physical expansion and remarkable improvement of its constructions. In less than fifty years - from 1808 to 1856 - the numbers of houses grew from 1553 to 2764, while the number of straw huts diminished from 300 to 144. The imports of construction material at that time increased considerably: tiles, cantaria thresholds and portals are among these imported goods. Also, there was a growth in the demand for specialized civil construction professionals, once the hard work was done by sla-ves.

    It takes no more than a careful look at the old part of the city to have an idea of its magnificent past. However. the splendid mansions and spacious houses not always lived up to the expectations of their former owners - many times they are a living, and somewhat poignant, testimony of our grandparents' times. The constructions on Rua da Palma, Rua do Giz and their outskirts, near Desterro, were turned into easily-noticeable slums: clothes hanging on the balconies and lack of preservation cares such as painting are some evidence of this.

    Not all constructions in São Luís are tiled mansions with faience eaves, gracious belvederes and elegant iron balconies where beautiful monograms and long-gone dates can be read.

    Those who were not that well-off to afford such refinement found other solutions of very good taste for the hou-sing problem. Several standards of single-floored houses are an evident reflection of this. These houses used to have a basement, which was a way of taking advantage of level differences in the terrain. They were built in groups according to their kind of façade, built area and internal division. There are four basic patterns: Porta-e-janela (Door-and-Window), meia-morada (half-house), morada-inteira (full-house) and morada-e-meia (house-and-half).

    The following representations of these four models and their respective subtitles have been kindly provided by Dora Alcântara. They were originally reproduced in her wonderful book Azulejos Portugueses em São Luís do Maranhão (Rio, Fontana, 1980), which may be considered essential for those who wish to know more about the typical architecture of our city.

    If all our constructions are not tiled mansions, at least the preference for this esthetic and utilitarian element is ingrained in us. Even in the façades of more modern houses, tiles will be present to prove our peculiar characteristic of living: with commodity and good taste. Remodeling in popular houses and elegant neighborhoods always include total or partial covering with tiles - a shinning panel reflecting the light of the sun, preventing infiltrations and damage caused by the salty air.

    Many popular neighborhoods in São Luís are even more important than some cities in the countryside of the State, due to their expressive population. These neighborhoods have a life of their own and gather several levels of our middle class.

    Walking up and down hills through São Luís gives anyone a good notion of the topography of the city, despite of countless interventions, of public and private nature, which constantly change its shape.

    By the margins of Bacanga and Anil rivers it is possible to see how much these modifications have altered the shape of the area in São Luís. Dams and landfillings over places that were originally bathed by the sea or over tide-floodable areas are evidence of this phenomenon. It happened, if we are based in the original urban perimeter, at the following places: Largos de Palácio, João do Vale (actual Benedito Leite Square), Do Carmo, Do Santo Antônio, De São João, Do Açouque, Do Quartel, Das Mercês, Praia Grande and Praça da Alegria. Amongst the 18 chapels that disappeared, we have: S'Antaninha, Mercês, Conceição, Barraquinhas, São Tiago, Madre de Deus and the Chapels of the prison.

    Urban expansion in São Luís has been performed, in great part, by the occupation of land and mangrove areas. In order to promote urbanization and embellishment of the city, the government has many times fomented the con-quest of terrains over the sea.


    CHURCHES AND CHAPELS

    1 - Churches and Chapels ( Igrejas e Capelas )

    If we take a look at the architecture of the historical part of São Luís, with particular attention to religious cons-tructions, it'll be easily noticeable the handicap of these structures in comparison to the civil ones. This is a rather unusual conclusion, for very few cities in Brazil show such a contrast.

    The Maranhenses, it is told, have never been very unanimous nor earnest in their religious beliefs - the observa-tion of religious constructions may well prove it.

    In São Luís, emotions are quite different: the pyramid indicating the probable site where the revolutionary Mano-el Beckman and his fellow Jorge Sampaio de Carvalho were hanged (November 10th, 1685); the modest monu-ment at Outeiro da Cruz, a reminder of the war in which the Dutch were expelled; the churches where Father Vieira used to preach; the springs by which Jerônimo de Albuquerque camped his troops; the tiled mansion (Rua do Sol, 567) in whose belvedere Aluísio Azevedo wrote his masterpiece O Mulato (The Mulatto).

    There is another mansion (Rua da Paz, 107) in whose ground floor the Casa Trasmontana was established and where Humberto de Campos worked as a salesman - in this house the writer-to-be met Sousândrade who lived his last days, poor and abandoned by his family. He usually came to the shop to buy "a can of asparagus, some chee-se, Nantes sardines and some dates or plums", a small but refined set of provisions that a servant took the Guesa Poet's house, on Rua da Vitória. The poet would "pay some weeks later, with change and small bills carefully counted" (Unfinished Memories), money he got by selling stones taken form the walls of his house, which was therefore being gradually destroyed (this, however, prevented Sousândrade from starving to death). The poet would answer how-have-you-been questions in an ironical way: "I am doing very well, thank you. You know, eating rocks..."

    Finally, there is São João Church, built in 1665 under orders and support of Governor Rui Vaz de Siqueira (1662-7), who wanted to expiate a sin he had committed together with a lady of the society. What is remarkable in this temple is not its architectonic features, but its curious story. Erected in order to have a sin forgiven, it would be covered with guilt 150 years later, when Colonel Joaquim Silvério dos Reis Montenegro (who was responsible for the failure of the Inconfidência Mineira, a revolution in favor of Independence) was buried there. Montenegro arrived in São Luís on October 11th, 1809 and died on February 17th, 1819.

    1.1 - Igreja da Sé (The Sé Church)

    This church started being built in September 8th, 1690, under orders of Father Bettendorf. It was concluded al-most ten years later and blessed on July 30th, 1699 by D. Timóteo do Sacramento, third Bishop of the Diocese of Maranhão. Nossa Senhora da Luz was the patroness of the temple, which only in 1762 was named Cathedral, title then lost by Nossa Senhora da Vitória Church, its neighbor (located where the Palácio do Comércio is today).

    In 1760, when the Jesuits were expelled from Maranhão for the third and final time, all their possessions were confiscated by the Portuguese crown. By that time, the Jesuit temple already had another patroness: Nossa Se-nhora da Boa Morte (Our Lady of Good Death).

    The Carta Régia (Colonial Law) of June 11th, 1761 turned the school, the convent and the Church of the Jesuits into a seminar, the Bishop's house and the Sé Cathedral. This decision came in the right time, for the temple lay in ruins then. On January 17th, 1762, the temple of Nossa Senhora da Boa Morte was erected as the Sé Cathedral.

    The Church suffered many internal and external changes throughout three centuries and now features the appearance given by the last reform performed in 1922 by Bishop D. Helvécio Gomes de Oliveira: complete remo-deling of the old façade, in ancient colonial style, asymmetric with a curve front.

    The reform made it taller, symmetric, neoclassic, showing an image of Nossa Senhora da Vitória on the classic frontispiece. It also added a new tower to it - beside the northern one - and made both towers square, covered with domes divided into three sections, on which lay octagonal pyramids with iron crosses.

    In the extremities of the transept there are the altar of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, with neoclassic decoration (in whose glassed table an urn contains the image of Nossa Senhora da Boa Morte), and the altar of the Holy Sacra-ment, where we can find elements of rococo and neoclassic styles.

    The main altar is a wonderful work of Portuguese art of the 17th century. It features an excessive decoration with golden details over a blue basis. The altar is supported by Solomon columns and crowned by concentric arches linked by radial elements.

    Many eminent personalities of our society are buried in the Sé Church. Among them we have the Bishops D. Gregório dos Anjos (our first one), D. Luís de Brito Homem, D. Frei Joaquim de Nossa Senhora de Nazaré, D. Marcos Antônio de Sousa and our gentle and dearest Father D. Francisco de Paula e Silva, whose presence in the history of the Catholic Church of Maranhão is remarkable.

    1.2 - São José do Desterro Church

    The best way to get to this church is going down Rua da Palma. In the first years of the colonization the site was occupied by a small hermitage turned towards the sea and dedicated to Nossa Senhora do Desterro. The Dutch are said to have profaned this hermitage when they invaded the city in 1641.

    The hermitage was then rebuilt, still under patronage of Nossa Senhora do Desterro, probably with its front tur-ned to the little square where Rua da Palma ends, and where the becos (alleys) Precipício, do Desterro and do Caela start.

    In 1832 this construction fell down, but José Lé, a black man who lived in its outskirts, immediately started working in order to rebuild it. With help of few friends, Lé himself carried the stones, lime, clay, wood and other materials needed in the work. José Chagas, the poet, wrote the story of this persistent man, who venerated God with his sweat, in Os Canhões do Silêncio (The Cannons of Silence):

    Time has gone by and José
    was taken from life,
    and his church is today
    all built in blue,

    a church out of the
    neighborhood and out of our reach
    irradiating an aura
    seen from behind, from a distance.

    But the church he left
    unfinished in the place
    is this one the windy,
    beliver of the air itself,

    announces with the voices
    of the bell to José Lé,
    that the church has come to us
    thank to his faith.


    The unfinished work of José Lé was taken ahead by another dweller of the place, José Antônio Furtado de Queixo, a clerk. With charity of the parishioners, he finally got to conclude the reconstruction of the temple, which was blessed in 1839 under the patronage of São José do Desterro - maybe a relationship with the names of those two faithful men.

    The Church, however, was again abandoned when José Antônio Furtado de Queixo died. This was due to lack of care of the brotherhood responsible for the temple. Images, chandeliers and other pieces of decoration were stolen or simply vanished. In 1865, after a period of pitiless deterioration, the Câmara Municipal addressed a docu-ment to the Bishop, asking for permission to demolish the walls that still lasted, for they were about to fall down. In the site of the old church a fish market would be placed.

    The project seemed to restore in the population the awareness of the historical value of that temple. A letter from the bishop D. Luís da Conceicão Saraiva (August 8th, 1867), convoked thirty people to join the committee which "on behalf of religious zeal and love for the church" would rebuild São José do Desterro. The works soon started, under the supervision of a directory composed by Priest Maurício Fernandes Alves, president; César Marques, secretary; and Manoel de Freitas Bicas, treasurer.

    The end of the reconstruction, paid by Maranhense ladies, is shown in the front bars of the tower: 1868. A board in the choir also shows: "Francisco Gonçalves dos Reis, in 1868, ordered the making of this choir and the three windows in front, under charity."

    The new church was finally inaugurated, with solemnity, on November 21st, 1869, under presidency of bishop D. Luís da Conceição Saraiva. The bells, named São José, São Luís, Santa Bárbara and São Jerônimo, tolled for the first time at the sound of Gloria in Excelsis Deo.

    1.3 - Remédios Church

    Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, built in gothic style, has surely the most harmonic lines and the most impressive façade of the churches in São Luís. It is located in front of Largo (Square) dos Remédios, in whose center stands the statue of Gonçalves Dias. The whole neighborhood, known in colonial times as Ponta do Romeu and where vegetation grew tall, was named after the church.
    In 1719, clericals of Santo Antônio Convent donated a block of land measuring 50 braças to Captain Manoel Monteiro de Carvalho, where he built the hermitage of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios. The place was very far from the city at that time and, therefore, was visited only by people who would expiate or make promises to the saints. However, after a fugitive slave killed his 'owner', the visitors practically stopped coming.

    The hermitage, abandoned, started falling into pieces. In 1775, Governor Joaquim de Melo ordered the cons-truction of a wide road that went from Ponta do Romeu to the Royal Road, the Rua Grande (Great Street). The road made it possible to people visit the hermitage regularly again. At the same time, Rua dos Remédios was given its present shape.

    The construction of the temple started thanks to charity collected by Francisco Xavier, an old hermit. During the first quarter of the 19th century, , Gaioso said Nossa Senhora dos Remédios "was greatly enriched by Maranhense businessmen, who took the Lady as the patroness of commerce".

    The writing surrounded by decorations in high-relief seen in the interior of the temple, on the left side of the main chapel arch, was originally placed outside, on the door of the hermitage.

    Many rebuildings, improvements and remodelings were performed in Nossa Senhora dos Remédios: 1860, 1892, 1906, 1907, 1910, 1913 and 1929-30.

    The Festival of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, which happened in October, used to be one of the most impor-tant and sought-after events in São Luís from the last century to the first half of this one. It was mentioned many times by Trajano Galvão, Graça Aranha, Aluísio Azevedo, César Marques and, specially, the story written by João Francisco Lisboa, published in O Publicador Maranhense on October 15th, 1851 and later joined to his works.

    1.4 - São Pantaleão Church

    Despite its small size and simple architecture, São Pantaleão - located on the street named after the same saint, between Cotovia and Cajazeiras - took almost forty years to be finished. Pantaleão Rodrigues de Castro and Pedro da Cunha officially started its construction on June 15th, 1780. The patron saint would be São José da Cidade. However, Pedro da Cunha died nine years later, at the age of eighty. In 1793 Pantaleão and his son Manoel Rodri-gues de Castro donated the church to the Santa Casa de Misericórdia (House of the Holy Mercy), together with an image of São José da Misericórdia. Pantaleão, too, died without seeing the temple fully constructed, what would happen only in 1817. On March 17th of the same year the temple was solemnly blessed and inaugurated.

    The new church was then called São Pantaleão, in a homage to one of his idealizers. The body of Pantaleão Castro, buried in the chapel of Nossa Senhora da Piedade, in the Carmo Convent; was transferred to the main chapel of São Pantaleão in November, 1830.

    On the left side of the back of the temple, in front of Rua da Cotovia, was established for a long time the Casa da Roda, also called Roda dos Enjeitados or Casa dos Expostos, a place conceived to receive and educate babies born of single women who could not - or didn't want to - raise them. Both the Casa dos Expostos and the Church were under the rule of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia until 1946, when they were transferred to the responsibility of the Mission of São José and the Archbishop of São Luís, respectively.

    On the right side of those who come into the church, there are the relics of Santa Severa, inside of a glass urn. They arrived in São Luís on December 5th, 1852, brought by Frei Doroteu de Dronero.
    Inside, São Panteleão Church has been discharecterized and poorly decorate because of disas-trons remodeling done in 1976, under priest André K. direction.

    SÃO JOÃO CHURCH

    SÃO JOÃO CHURCH, as have said, was built in 1665, by iniciative and expenses of Governor and General Captain Rui V. de S., who head the state from 1662 to 1667.
    A process of inquest instaured during his administration, he was out of town for a while, getting, aftewards, permission to live in this church, "which he had recently built at his expenses to the soldiers, in order to pay what he had done to a noble married woman, with whom he had a daugther", according to priest João F. B., contemporary cronist of the fact.

    Built in the Paz and São João streets crossing, Saint John Baptist Church has it front to a plaza where the water company installed a water fountain (already removed). In 1938 the bust of Antônio Henriques Leal, codnamed maranhense Plutarch was put there, but removed, in 1967 to Pantheon Square.

    Among the remodelings that the church went throught, it is particularly important the one of 1934, because of its complete reconstruction, according to front wall inscription : 1665 SANCTI JOANNIS BAPTISTAE ECCLESIA 1934.

    In 1958 it had several remodelings, including painting, remove of high altar and roof remodeling. At that time the bones removing took place, including Silvério dos Reis Remains.

    ROSÁRIO CHURCH

    On may 17th, 1717, the carmel monks considered that "the little black brothers of Virgin of Saint of Rosário were united and agreed to found here a hermitage dedicated to the same saint and for not having where to build it". They gave to the brother hood a spot situated in old Carmo.

    Our Saint Lady Rosário Brotherhood, whose king was , then, José Luís da Fonseca, had white devotees help to build the church (on Egito street, Santo Antônio street corner), visited in 1772, in 1776 was bapti-zed by Antônio Cordeiro Roxas vigary, then the saint moved to High Altar, of the temple. On november 1st, 1814, there was the first procession. But it seems that in 1864 the works were not done yet, because there is a note which the brotherhood asks the devotee's more help, to "continue the chapel work".

    According to expert report, inside the temple only the partial cover of side walls of main - chapel remains original, made out of tiles that makes panels, and the side altares, principally the left one, compouned by rustic carving cut and hold by two columns adorned with fruits and leaves that covers and follow the movement.

    During D. Manoel J. de S. (1852-1861) bishop, Sé Church was hit by a lightning that caused great damages, and because of that the prelet had to preside in Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos.

    D. Luís de Conceição Saraiva (1862-1878) after D. Manoel, taking advantage of his privileged position, started the remodeling work of Sé church and the episcopal palace, gave to maranhense faithful the example of his work and care for catholic things. Following this idea, other brotherhoods remodeled their church, such as "Santo Antônio, Desterro, Carmo, São Pantaleão and Rosário", besides chapels of "Senhor dos Passos and Senhor Bom Jesus dos Navegantes".

    In 1970, São Benedito Brotherhood, under presidence of Eduardo da Silva Sampaio, did the last notable remodeling of this church, which had left one of its rooms to public classes conducted, up to 1821, by priest Domingos Cadávila Veloso, important person in favor of Maranhense Adhesion to Independence.

    SANTANA CHURCH

    The historic monuments of maranhense publication, when referring to Santana Church (in a street of same name, between Cruz and São João street), makes a mistake, confusing it with already demolished Sacred Family Santana Chapel, widely know as Santaninha Church. This note has the idea of preventing fooling eventual consultors, and also because mainly it's the author's fault, which is in the mentioned book, the responsible for the text and revision.

    César Marques, whose dictionary is greatly used by those who write about history of Maranhão, talks about many churches of São Luís, but does not mention some. Among them, Santana. According to Gaioso, the construction in 1790, by Canon João Maria da Leu Costa.

    The panels of Portuguese tiles are notable for their values. Unhappily they are in a very bad condi-tion, and trying to solve this problem, they applied modern tiles, which gave a bad and different impression.

    Inspite of predominant neoclassic style, this temple has got several Barroque elements. At the end of the hall, left side from entrance, there is a panel with Sacra inspiration, beautiful and relative good conservation.


    ANUNCIAÇÃO AND REMÉDIOS CHAPEL

    Beside Santa Tereza School, of Doroteias Sisters (Egito street, across from Rosário Church), there is our Saint Anunciação and Remédios Chapel. Which original construction dates of century XVIII and thank to determination of blessed Gabriel Malagrida, the apostole of Maranhão.

    This chapel was built as praying house of our Saint Anunciação and Remedios Asillum, founded by the missionary, in 1752. While some work as getting money and chapel remodeling were in progress, both conclued on August 1753, the asillum was in priest José Teles Vidigal House, in the then João do Vale Plaza (actual Bene-dito Leite Square), where there is Caixeral Center Technical School of Maranhão.

    Linked by Malagrida to Jesus Heart Ursulinas, the retired, under pression to maintain the longest distance as possible of the insulted memory of their Benefactor and spiritual father, had, in 1768, request permissi-on to change their Instute by the Santa Mônica Agostinianas, getting rid of the old "chothes and customs not to keep among them any sign of the Jesuits".

    Succeding agostinianas, on january 19th, 1894, arrived the Doroteias Virgínia Janozzi, provincial, Dorotéia Moraes, superior, Maria Carolina Beltrão and Francisco Cunha. On January 6th, after religious ceremony at Retired Chapel, were solemny, placed in the direction of the place by bishop D. Antônio Alvarenga.

    Besides antique tile panels, the beautiful lioz stone sink and the tomb-stone that there are in the mortuary room, deserves reference, in our sain Anunciação and Remédios Chapel, a rustic bench in which, accor-ding to tradition, priest Malagrida "used to rest and sleep tired or his apostolate".


    LARANJEIRAS CHAPEL

    José das Laranjeiras Chapel is at the end of Grande street, has ist construction authorized on April 17th, 1811 and was concluded in 1816. The portuguese José Gonçalves da Silva codnamed 'o Barateiro' (the Cheap Man), built it, who when died, on Nov. 22nd, 1821, at 72 years old, was village Itapecuru-Mirim alcaide-mor, Fortaleza de São Marcos Governor, Portuguese Real Army Brigate and titular of "Morgado das Laranjeiras".

    Owner of a fortune, about 7 millions of cruzados, 'O Barateiro' left a humanity and generous person memory. To the flagelates from Ceará dry, he sent manioc flour; lent to real treasure 20 contos (brazilian money currency at the time) and had annual donation of 1080 rice bags, while the war Portugal against France lasted. And gave about 300 contos to 'Legados Pios', out of which 50 thousand cruzados to "Santa Casa de Misericórdia" Hospital.

    The Laranjeiras Spot, head of Morgado, was also called Baroteiro Spot, for Association to the autonomasie of its titular. And letter, Barão Spot allusive nobile arquic - Barão de Bajé - of Barateiro's son - in - law.

    In spite belonging to Maristas Brothers and being annexed to Maranhense School, directed by them, this chapel was in a so bad situation and abandoned, that almost fall down.

    By iniciative of Maranhense Tourism Organ - MARATUR, went through complete remodeling, opened to public visitation on December, 1981. Inside there is a tumb of its founder, which arms blasonry is used as tomb stone Culture Secretary Organ, through Historic and Artistic Museum of Maranhão.

    QUARESM STEPS ( PASSOS DA QUARESMA )

    Of the seven Quaresm Steps, in front of which were performed, in easter, the fourteen main Sacra way pictures, only two remain in good conditions to the remodeling and conservation program : the one in João V.; T. street and the one in Formosa street (across of Direita street), for being isolated construction and not irreversible discharacte-rized.

    Of three other steps we know about, only one is of own building, on Grande street, 87, Commercial Firm Ribeiro Carvalho & Cia. Ltd. Head office. This small real is greatly danifed for the front cover, oil painting and hurdy-gurdy door that was put there, besides changing all its inside part.

    The other two, there are some vestigies in the side wall of Sé Church (before Benedito Leite Squa-re) and in the corner of Great Orient Masonic House (São João Street Side).


    CONVENTS ( CONVENTOS )

    CONVENTS, CHURCHES AND SEMINARS

    SÃO FRANCISCO CONVENT

    The very first of our convents - São Francisco is close to Sé Church - lasted a little longer then the permanence of French cappuchines here, their founders.

    SANTO ANTÔNIO CONVENT, CHURCH AND SEMINAR

    On August 5th, 1624, Monk Cristóvão de Lisboa arrived in São Luís, as a holy office visitor and commissary.

    He brought 13 other franciscans with him, and started right away, in the place that is still there today is A. Plaza the construction of S. A. Convent and the annexed little church Santa Margarida, which lately disappeared.

    About the convent. Inaugurated on February 1st, 1625, and of which Fra Antônio de of Trindade was nomineed guardian, informed monk Cristóvão, at this time to his brother Manoel Severim de Faria : "in this land I have done a monastery with two bed rooms and all the necessary shops, roofs and two floor building, walls, therefore of wood towed and pained".

    There are several episodes about Santo Antônio Convent, the first one known as Bequimão Re-volt, which meetings held place there, reaching the point of conjures concentration that left from there, in the night of February 23rd, 1684 and deposed Captain-Mor Baltazar Fernanda, because the state governor and General-Captain, Francisco de S. de M., was in Belém.

    In many times the Santo Antônio monks sheltered the threatened persons such as the auditor Vicente Leite Ripado (1720) and João Francisco Leal (1792), persecuted by Colonial Governors.

    It's from the beggining of century XVIII the famous process the franciscans promoted against ants, for stealing their store room and thereatening the Convent Security.

    In 1836. when the state military police was criated, with the name of province police corporation of Maranhão, the Santo Antônio Convent was its first Head Quarters. But soon they found a better place to stay, Santo Antônio Episcopal seminar, founded by bishop D. Marcos Antônio de Sousa, inaugurated on abril 17th, 1838.

    o The seminar had developed, getting many students, being necessary to enlarge the physical space and criate new subjects of humunities, theology and gregorian song. The Convent therefore, started to decline, so in 1856, there was no priestes nor financial resources, left in a complete abandoned situation.

    In this year Frei Vicente de Jesus came from Pará State, as a guardian, and started the renewing of the convent as well as the construction of Santo Antônio Church. He died, therefore, in 1862, not being able to see the conclusion of the church the worked so much for, asking help from the people and public power.

    The new convent guardian, Frei Ricardo do Sepulcro, continued his antecessor's work. He got that, from 1864 the province government sent to the construction work some 12 "Contos de Reis" (that period's money currency) annually and that the engineer Francisco César de Silva Amaral would be in charge of them, by government orders.

    The Santo Antônio Church was fulemny and pomposily opened to the fies on january 20th, 1867, when they enthroed the image of their Patron Saint .

    On the left side going in the church, there are, with its continuity in a transversal way, the chapels of 'Senhor Bom Jesus dos Navegantes'and of 'Senhor Bom Jesus da Coluna, both constructions done before, and primitive front walls gathered to the church front wall. The chapel of Senhor Bom Jesus dos Navegantes has lousa floor and arch cradle roof. The Altar-Mor, neoclassic, is wall white, decorated with green frower motives, which is very nice.

    According to the tradition, priest Antônio Vieira speeched here, in 1654, the Santo Antônio Sermon, which became famous as 'The Fish Sermon', for him alegorically referred to them. Vieira, actually, used this way to call the attention of some local people (includind religious people) related with indians abuse and with bad procedu-res which he fought.

    If Vieira speeched in the chapel or in the church, there aren't enough elements to prove. What we can be sure of is that the 'Fish Sermon'was not speeched in the actual Santo Antônio Church, which we know, is dated from the second half of century XIX.



    CARMO CHURCH AND CONVENT

    The church and convent of 'Nossa Senhora do Carmo'are linked with several episodes of Mara-nhense History, being the principal of them, the expulsion of dutches, in 1643. Bitten in the island, Nassau preposts intended to organize the resistence in São Luís, but they had in the Carmo Convent a inexpugnable fortress from where the decisives bombing against São Felipe Fort came from, and where the portuguese fighters and the nati-ves found shelter, sustain, weapons and ammunitions. Combat wounded, died there the brave Antônio Muniz Barreiros Filho, Ex-Captain-Mor of Maranhão. But the Carmelits Strict, their assistance to the wounded people, their spiritual confort and encoraging words contributed a lot for the new leader's campaing, Sargent-Mor Antônio Teixei-ra de Melo, with a lot of determination and braveness, in which among others, had distinguish captain Paulo Soares de Avelar and indians chiefs Joacaba Mitogás and Henrique de Albuquerque.

    Spot of primitive Carmo Convent, placed in monsieur Pinau country house, where there is today 'Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos' Church, was donated to the Carmelits Frei Cosme de Anunciação and Frei André de Natividade, by Alexandre de Moura, on december 12th, 1615. But in 1623, the order was already in charge with the edification of new convent and church, in the palce of they are nowadays, which was knoen as Santa Barbara Hill, because of a little church that once was there, under this name.

    The actual Carmo Church and Convent have very few of the original constructio, starting from the front wall, that doesn't seem to be the primitive one, covered by tiles in 1866. The Convent, principally, had descha-racterized modifications done by its new owners, the capuchines.

    Because of internal disagreement and the new political-institutional situation criated by the Procla-mation od Republic, the religious orders had their patrimony incorporated to national treasure and their churches and convents were abandoned progressively. That was Carmo's situation when Lombardos capuchines mission arrived in São Luís, in 1894. In the same year they had authorized, by the customs inspector of this capital, the requirement to be church and convent depostaries, with the responsability of remodeling them. In the year after they moved in. For 16 contos and 500 thousand réis (brazilian currency at that time) they bought them, in a public sessi-on, in 1911.

    To follow the urban plan in execution, the church and convent had some changes, like shortening the large sidewalk on Paz street (3 windows desappeared because of this). This demolition, previewed since 1902, was done in 1932. Of a posterior data was the adro reduction, which front steps were changed for siding ones.

    Belongs to the memory of the church, celebrations such Santa Filomena, which was one of the most important of the city, and the eloquence of great sacros and politicans speechers that spoke to people from there, like Frei Marcelino de Milão; Conego Ribamar Carvalho, the unforgetabel speecher of the meeting processi-ons; Astolfo Serra, whom, priest, spoke fluently is service of politition; José do Patrocínio, is his way to the unfair amazonic confining and Conde D'Eu, whose monarquist speeching, was repelled with a noisy disagreement rooms of the Convent are used to several objectives, such as medical offices and courses, offered preferable to low in came people. Last century, among other objectives, Carmo Convent used to ve Provincial Police Head Quarters, Public Library first place (inaugurated on may 3rd, 1831), Maranhense Literary Institute (1865) and Liceu Mara-nhense, according to front woll inscription, side north of the tower, that according to Antônio Lopes is the "lightest inscription of São Luís".

    MERCÊS CHURCH AND CONVENT

    There was in São Luís a convent - The Nossa Senhora das Mercês Real and Military order - that, for its material goods, administrative mistakes and political-institutional crises, overpass the congeneric organizati-ons.

    In 1654 arrived to the city, from Belém, the mercenaries João Cerveira (Maranhense from Alcânta-ra) and Marcos de Natividade, to whom come to join a little later, the Frades Manoel de Assunção and Antônio Nolasco, besides the layman brother João das Mercês.

    During this year they built the church and convent, simple constructions made out of stucco cove-red by leaves. But in 1655 they requested additional spot to the Chapel-Mor, and with no delay they built the convent and church wider, of stone and cal.

    Knowing the educational and evangelic activities, the mercenaries developed with hard work, industrial and agropastures enterprises. From where they got their sustain and much more was left to make them richer. There were times that they used to have more than 200 slaves to work in plantations, pottery, salt-mines and cattle raising.

    Criated by Pará Convent, Mercês Convent of São Luís and Alcântara made, with the first, a depen-dable that there is a reason to several strict orders that the order suffered, including the total submission to episco-pal judgment that ranged ilimited unmanaging in the destiny of their wellfares.

    With the independence arrival, started, going back to Lisbon, habit changes or through the centuri-es, an emptyness process of the convent by the frades.

    After the amplifications and recuperations necessary to its new objectives, the Mercês Convent was indicated, by D. Luís de Conceição Saraiva (1862-1878), the place of small seminar there inaugurated on february 3rd, 1863, which became later a important humanities institute.

    Under the bishop D. Xisto Albano (1901-1907), the convent buildings and Mercês church, making 1.062 m2 of constructed area in spot of 5.605 m2, were sold to state government for 4 contos de réis (brazilian currency at that time).

    Owing the place in may 5th, 1905, the government did some adaptations and relomeling, including the one that chaged the front side of the convent and church annexed (to the sea side) and confered a unit of unic front wall, to be used as Military Police and State Military Fireman Corps. After this place had a complete restaurati-on, in order to be Republic Memory Foundation, which has important collection of books, documents, iconography, condecorations, filmotec, art works and several objects donated by Senator and ex-President José Sarney.

    To Mercês Convent and church (whise edification preceded that one) associate a notable cronic that the banquets for many guests, poor people alms , first letters classes, latin grammar, phylosophy, music, by "talent and illustred frades", a notable library and the Christms, Easter, Nossa Senhora das Mercês and São Pedro Nolasco, the Order patron. In this saint day in which the church was inaugurated, the Priest Antônio Vieira spee-ched the famous sermon of São Pedro Nolasco, out of which we have :

    Note Maranhão of way, and take care, a lot, that has among all conquers of our kingdom. All states of our conquers, in Africa, Asia, and America, got from Portugal the religions in honor, and sustain itself : only Maranhão State can give new religion to Portugal, because it gives to Mercês. Here started and from here went, and there starts to have a house, and will want the same Senhora, that soon have houses and provinces.


    NOTABLE INSTITUTIONS AND MONUMENTS

    Depending on the parameters used to observe our monuments and our institutions, we may conclude that they are either notable or unimportant. In fact, São Luís has no monuments that, measured by a general scale, deserve a notable classification. And perhaps because of this the city does not need, yet itself, in soul and tiles, hillside and eaves, is the largest and most important monument that we can admire here.

    With so much comprehension that ahead there is a summary presentation of busts, statues and marks of the city, as well as some institutions. Some of them, notable and very important, for what they represent and summarize of our history, our traditions, fights and victories, of our lives, at last.

    CROSS HILL ( OUTEIRO DA CRUZ )
    Evocative monument of Dutch expulsion, where an inscription reminds : THE POPULAR TRADITION CONSECRA-TED THIS/ MONUMENT TO THE BRAVE'S MEMORY THAT,/ UNDER MONIZ BARREIROS AND/ TEIXEIRA DE MELLO'S ORDER TURNED OUT/ THE DUTCHES FROM CAPTAINCY. 09.30.1642/ 09.21.1642/ 01.26.1643/ 02.28.1644.


    MEMORY STONE ( PEDRA DA MEMORIA )
    Monument erected in Durique field , in 1841, commemorative of D. Pedro II Coronation. It has, open in relief, in one of pyramid faces on the top, the empire arms. And, in the pedestal, these inscriptions : TO THE CORONATION MEMORY OF HIS MAJESTY EMPEROR D. PEDRO II, EMPEROR OF BRAZIL, ERECT THIS MONUMENT THE ARMY MEMBERS WHICH ARE IN THE PROVINCE, BEING PRESIDENT DOCTOR JOÃO ANTÔNIO DE MI-RANDA/ 18 AND 41/ ARMS COMMANDER COLONEL FRANCISCO JOSÉ MARTINS/ 1841. On the other side of the pedestal, a bronze plate, says : RESTORED ON 04.10.50/ GOVERNOR SEBASTIÃO ARCHER/ DA SILVA/ CITY MAYOR ANTÔNIO E. DA COSTA RODRIGUES.

    After the demolition of the headquarter and complete abandon of Durique field, this monument, nowadays in one of docks half-orange, was dismounted and almost got lost wasn't the endeavoury of writer Joa-quim Luz (Matões-MA, Dec. 17th 1813 - Rio de Janeiro, Jul. 1st 1950), who had interest in its instalation in the place where it is nowadays.

    Note : The empire arms and the inscription open on chisel are facing the sea. Still about the original inscription : the double registration of the year - 1841 - indicates that the name of the arms commander was inclu-ded later. Especially because the first date, which should end the inscription, was clumsy introduced the additive AND.


    BEQUIMÃO PYRAMID ( PIRÂMIDE DE BEQUIMÃO )
    Evocative obelisk of Manoel Beckman, Bequimão Sacrifice, principle leader of 1684 Revolution. Inaugurated on Jul. 28th 1910, at Urbano Santos Park, previously called Warehouse beach and later Trindade beach, problably the place where Bequimão and his fellow Jorge de Sampaio were hanged, on Nov. 10th 1685.


    BANDEIRA TRIBUZI MEMORIAL ( MEMORIAL BANDEIRA TRIBUZI )
    Ponta d'Areia beach, built during Luís Rocha Government, should gather the poet's collection, space used for courses, seminars and temporany expositions. Abandoned, hasn't had any utility, so far.

    There are statues and pyramids all over the city done and ordered to be done in a feast soul, but all of them of untoward aesthetics results. The first represent the water mother, Saint Francisco, Saint Cristóvão, Bequimão, Jerônimo de Alburquerque, the fisherman, the urban workman, finally - goddess, saints, fighters and daily heroes. The second, we do not know for sure what they represent. In front of Newton Bello assemblage, Alemanha sector, there was a maranhense ex-governor statue, aberrance which is no longer there, at the monu-ment of this registration. Hopefully it never goes back, while deeply recommend the city's asthetic prophylaxis service. And to have a beautiful close of these notes, let's remember amazing panels and murals that Antônio Almeida spreaded out through indoor and outdoor spaces of São Luís, among them, in the Atlântico Gas Station, Park of Bom Menino Veneza Spot, State Legislative Assembly, State of Maranhão newspaper front wall, couple Cléa Alberto Salim Duailibe residence, Commercial Association and State of Maranhão Bank Wall. Some, despite being badly treated or widly painted, lost, in general the beauty that Almeida gave to them. It's nice to admire them. Sometimes cause pity. But always, as well, are worth seeing.


    MERCÊS CAVE ( CAVUA DAS MERCÊS )
    Jacinto Maia (start), between Estrela and Palma Streets.

    Small construction that would have been a slave trade center. It has a 'pelourinho' replic (place where slaves were bit), the one that used to be in Carmo Plaza, besides pieces related to slavery and black culture.


    BUSTS

    TAMANDARÉ ADMIRALTY ( ALMIRANTE TAMANDARÉ )
    In the square with the same name, close to the military village and 24th Head Quarter. In the front, an anchor and a cannon. Posted in the pedestal, this plate: TO TAMANDARÉ ADMIRALTY IN HONOR FROM THE CITY OF SÃO LUÍS/ INAUGURATED IN Jan. 31st, 1970.


    ANTONIO FRANCISCO LEAL LOBO
    (São Luis-Ma. July 4th, 1870 - June 24th, 1916) - In the old Santo Antônio Plaza, officially named Antönio Lobo Square (resolution of April 20th, 1917 from the Town House), in honor to this great intellectual leader, used to live at 33 building of this site, in his last days of life. Work of the maranhense sculptor Celso Antônio de Menezes, placed there by the initiative of Silvio Romero Students Union.


    APOLONIO PINTO
    (São Luis -Ma. 1854 - Rio de Janeiro , 1937) - The bust of this which was one of the greatest brazilian actress of her time, and that was born in the #1 dressing room, of the Arthur Azevedo Theater, was found, inicially, in the beginning of Magalhães de Almeida Avenue.
    After a while was transfered to the internal side of Arthur Azevedo Theater (A.A.), where there was the Eney Santa-na Gallery, with the monument at its entrance. Nowadays it's in the same place, inside the Arthur Azevedo Theater.

    PINDARÉ BARON, ANTONIO PEDRO DA COSTA FERREIRA
    (Alcântara - Ma. Dec. 26th, 1778 - Rio de Janeiro, July 8th, 1860) - in entrace of Benedito Leite Public Library for being the mentor of this Institution, while member of the Province General Counseling. Costa Ferreira was General Deputy, president of Maranhão Province and Empire Senador, place occupied for 25 years, and in which duty died.


    D.FRANCISCO DE PAULA E SILVA
    (Douradinho - MG, Oct. 21st, 1866 - Parnaíba - PI, June 1st, 1918), 23rd Bishop of São Luís and the penultimate titular of The Diocese, considered Arquidiocese by the Papal Bull "Rationi Congruit", of Feb. 10th, 1922, from the Pope Pio XI. The bust is in front of the Cathedral (by Newton Sá, blended in São Luís, by A. Vidal), where he was buried. Protected with cement and wood fence, the bust rests over white marble and has this inscription only : D. Francisco. Nowadays all covered by the vegetation that surrounds and practically hides it.


    MARCÍLIO DIAS
    in the small space beside Ports Captaincy, below this, and going down, in the way to the docks. Plate in the pe-destal of the monument says: " MARCÍLIO DIAS / SAILOR SQUARE / INAUGURATED IN June 11th, 1994 / 129th RIACHUELO NAVAL BATTLE ANNIVERSARY.


    PANTEON SQUARE BUSTS ( BUSTOS DA PRAÇA DO PANTEON )
    In Panteon Square, located in front of Benedito Leite Public Library, and where used to be the Army Quarter, built at the end of the XVIII century and demolished during the 40's of this actual century, there are, in a clockwise, starting from left of whom is in front of the Library, the busts of 16 notable maranhenses, biographied in short as follow:


    AUGUSTO OLÍMPIO GOMES DE CASTRO
    (Alcântara - MA, Nov. 7th, 1836 - Rio de Janeiro, Jan. 31st, 1909). Law BA by the Recife (PE) Faculty, graduated in 1861. Entering in politics, took part in Conservative Party, in which was the President of Maranhão's. After his first mandate, as a provincial deputy, acted, in various legislatures, as a general deputy. As a jornalist, directed in São Luís 'A Situação' (The Situation ¾ 1864-1868), 'O Tempo' (The Time ¾ 1878-1881) and 'O País' (The Country ¾ 1882-1888). He was a great parliamentary and fame lawyer. He directed the Provinces of Piauí and Maranhão. Patron of the Maranhense Academy of Literature of chair #39.

    BUST : Sculpted in Paris by M. Sain, smelted by Montagutelle Frères - Paris, 1918. In the bronze itself, the honored name.


    URBANO SANTOS DA COSTA ARAÚJO
    (Guimarães - MA, February 3rd, 1859 - May 7th, 1922, on board of Minas Gerais ship, travelling to Rio de Janeiro). BA in Law by the Recife (PE) Faculty (1822), was Public Prosecutor and Judge in Maranhão. Federal Deputy (1897-1906), Senator (1906-1914), Justice Ministry (1918); elected Maranhão Governor in 1898, 1913 and 1918, denied the two first mandates, only assuming the place in 1918. Republic Vice-president, exercised the Presidency in 1917. Again elected to this charge in 1922, did not assume the place. Urbano Santos is a maranhense town's name.

    BUST : There are two, one beside the other. From the first, the plate in honor to him has been stolen. We read in the second : URBANO SANTOS / Feb. 3rd, 1869 - May 6th, 1922. Note : the birth date and the death date are wrong.


    MARIA FIRMINA DOS REIS
    (São Luís, October 11th, 1825 - Guimarães-MA, Nov. 11th, 1917). Teacher of first letters, practiced the Magistery with dedication and competence, in Guimarães, inland of the state. Helped in São Luís Press, was abolitionist. The first maranhense romancist and among women that firstly did literature in Brasil. Author of the verses volume 'Can-tos à Beira-Mar' (Songs at Seaside 1859) and the romances 'Úrsula' (Ursula - 1859) and 'Gupeva'. The last one, with the subtitle 'Romances Brasilienses' (Brazilian Romances), and published in the literary periodic 'Echo da Juventude' (Youth's Echo - São Luís - 1864-1865)

    BUST : Over marble pedesdal, it's the tallest of the collection bronze inscription: MARIA FIRMINA DOS REIS/ FIRST ROMANCIST OF BRASIL. In pedestal, the plate: TO MARIA FIRMINA DOS REIS/ OCT. 11th, 1825 - NOV. 11th, 1917 / BRAZILIAN SCHOOL MISTRESS AND AUTHORESS / FOUNDED THE 1st MIXED SCHOOL OF MARANHÃO/ IN HONOR FROM THE PEOPLE/ 1975 INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF WOMEN / SCULPTURED BY FLORY GAMA.

    Note: the bust is the honored idea from whom pictures are unknown. But that, mulatto, problably would not have the fine and classic form of allegorized Republic that was given to her by the talented maranhense sculptor.


    BANDEIRA TRIBUZI
    authoress name of JOSÉ TRIBUZI PINHEIRO GOMES (São Luís, Feb. 2nd, 1927 - Sep. 8th, 1977) Had his huma-nistic fundamental formation in PORTUGAL, from where he returned in 1945. Important person in the aesthetics renovation process of Maranhão, Bandeira Tribuzi, teacher, economist, government planning technician, composer, jornalist, was mainly, poet. His work in this field , in a total of 10 books, was gather to the 'Poesias Completas' (Completed Poems - 1979), volume, reedited in 1996 with the title 'Poesia Reunida' (Reunited Poem 1st volume) Bandeira Tribuzi is the author (Lyrics and Music) of São Luís Anthem.

    BUST : without visible author indication. Does not keep perfect similarity with the honored, which has not his unseparable glasses. Plate : OH ! MY CITY, LET ME LIVE./ POET BANDEIRA TRIBUZI/ JOSÉ TRIBU-ZI PINHEIRO GOMES / Feb. 2nd, 1927 - Sep. 8th, 1977.

    Note: The first sentence is the first verse of São Luís Anthem.


    ARNALDO DE JESUS FERREIRA
    (São Luís, Oct. 12th, 1904 - Oct. 13th, 1958) Business man in the commercial field, was an important leader of his class. President in many mandates of the Maranhense Commercial Association; SENAC Regional Delegate, Bank of Maranhão Manager, State Treasure Secretary, Technical Consultant of Geography Regional Directory. Author of several historical studies about Maranhão subjects. He belonged to Maranhão Historic and Geographic Institute and Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    BUST : Plate where we can read : "TO WHOM HONORS, HONOR"/ MARANHÃO COMMERCIAL ASSOCIATION/ THANKFUL DO HONOR TO HER EX-PRESIDENT / ARNALDO DE JESUS FERREIRA/ 1904-1958/ SÃO LUÍS - MARCH, 1979.


    JOSÉ DA SILVA MAIA
    (Alcântara-MA, Feb. 26th, 1811 - São Luís, April 24th, 1893). Educated in France since he was 10 years old, gra-duated in 1838, by Paris Medicine School, being badged by King Luis Felipe, in recognition to his performance in the course. Back to his hometown, started his extraordinary career of general clinic that joined knowledge and amazing intuition, thanks to this he was very famous in Maranhão and Rio de Janeiro. Politician, he belonged to conservative party, from which he unbided later, founding the Star Party which gather the Maista Group. Province Vice-president, which happened two times (1869 and 1870).

    BUST : Inscription SILVA MAIA, in bronze. Sculptor M. Sain, Paris, 1918.


    HENRIQUE MAXIMIANO COELHO NETO
    (Caxias-MA, Feb. 21st, 1864 - Rio de Janeiro, Nov. 28th, 1934). Writer of large expressional resources, produced a work of more than 100 books from cronic to speech and conference; from romance to novel and tail; from theater play, to lyric episodes and profiles. Had, in his time great recognition, and was one of the Best Sellers. Eloquent speecher, delighted the public. Federal Deputy for Maranhão. One of Brazilian Academy Founders. He's Maranhão Town's name. Patron of Chair #24, in the Maranhanse Letters Academy.

    BUST : with plate : COELHO NETO / BRAZILIAN PROSE WRITER PRINCE/ Feb. 21st. 1864 - Nov. 28th. 1934.

    Sculpture by Correia Lima, 1945 - Blended Cavina, Rio.


    JOAQUIM GOMES DE SOUSA
    (Itapecuru-Mirim - MA, Feb. 15th. 1829 - London, June 1st. 1863). Precoce and very intelligent which gave him a genius and wise reputation, Gomes de Sousa, " the Sousinha", became, at 17 years old, BA in Mathematics and Physics Sciences, and four months later, defending thesis, Rio de Janeiro Military Academy Doctor, in which beca-me professor, after a memorable contest. Doctor in Medicine by Paris University, was distinguished by Universities and Scientific Academies of Vienn, London and Paris. Engineer-Capitain of The Army; General Deputy of Mara-nhão. Author of several works on Mathematics, Astronomy and scientific memories, published the 'Anthologie Universelle' (Universal Anthology - Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1859), where gather about 150 poets of 16 languages. Patron of chair # 8, in the Maranhanse Letters Academy.

    BUST : Sculptor, A. Matos (?), 1829. Blended Cavina, Rio. With plate : JOAQUIM GOMES DE SOUSA / THE MATHEMATICS GENIUS/ Feb. 15th. 1829 - June 1st. 1863.


    CLODOALDO CARDOSO
    (Barra do Corda - MA, Aug. 7th. 1894 - São Luís, May 5th. 1970). BA in law by Teresina (PI) Faculty. Professor and Director of Law Faculty of Maranhão; law consultant, member of State General Attorneyship, São Luís City Mayor; active lawyer, expert in tributaries and financing matters, State Treasure Secretary. As a poet, published 'Florões' (Fleuron, 1926). Also author of important monography 'Pastos Bons' (Good Pastes - 1947). Belonged to Maranhão Geography and History Institute and to Maranhanse Letters Academy, which reorganized and dinamized, while was its presidency in many mandates.

    BUST : With plate: IN HONOR OF/ TO MEMORY OF THE LAW CONSULTANT EX-PRESIDENT/ DR. CLODOALDO CARDOSO FROM/ MARANHÃO COMMERCIAL ASSOCIATION/ SÃO LUÍS, MARCH - 1979.


    ANTÔNIO HENRIQUES LEAL

    (Cantanhêde-MA, Jul. 24th. 1828 - Rio de Janeiro, Sep. 29th. 1885). Doctor, jornalist, polygraph and reseancher, worked in this last function in Portugal, as well, paid by the empire government. Belonged to Brazilian Geography and Historic Institute and directed the National Press. Founder, writer and/or collaborator of São Luís Newspapers, also collaborated in Rio de Janeiro and Portugal Press. Author of several books, among them the famous 'Panthe-on Maranhense' (Maranhense Pantheon, 4t., with 19 biographies), which gave him the correct nickname of "Plutar-co Maranhense". Patron of chair #10, in the Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    BUST : Sculptor, A. Matos (?) 1929, a plate where we can read : ANTÔNIO HENRIQUES LEAL/ THE PLUTARCO MARANHENSE/ Jul. 24th. 1828 - Sep. 29th. 1855.

    ARTHUR NABATINO GONÇALVES DE AZEVEDO

    (São Luís, Jun. 7th. 1855 - Rio de Janeiro, Oct. 22nd. 1908). Jornalist, poet, contist and overall, play writer, did, as so, some of the most important works in Brazil. Author of more than 100 titles, Arthur Azevedo was, also an art collector. The principal of the heap that he had (paintings, sculptures, engraving, etc.) was, after the writer death, bought by the State of Maranhão Government, and holds more than 20 thousand pieces. One of the founders of Brazilian Letters Academy. Patron of chair # 3, in The Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    BUST : With plate where we read : ARTHUR AZEVEDO/ PLAY WRITER AND THEATER/ July 7th. 1855 - Oct. 22nd 1908.


    HUMBERTO DE CAMPOS VERAS
    (Miritiba-MA, actual Humberto de Campos, Oct. 25th 1886 - Rio de Janeiro, 5th 1934). Cronist, science fiction writer, critic, memoralist, poet, Humberto de Campos had a great literary prestige in his time, getting to be one of the best sellers and appreciated. He was Federal Deputy by Maranhão. Belonged to the Brazilian Letters Academy. His work is gathered in 39 volumes, being 10 of "Conselho XX" serie. Humberto de Campos is patron of chair #22, in the Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    BUST : Sculptor, C. Lima, 1945. Cavina melting - Rio de Janeiro. Two plates where we read : IN THE FIRST HUMBERTO DE CAMPOS/ ERUDITE WRITER AND PRESTIGIOUS/ POLITICIAN/ Oct. 25th 1886 - Dec. 5th 1934/ GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY INSTITUTE OF MARANHÃO/ IN THE SECOND HONOR FROM GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY INSTITUTE OF MARANHÃO/ TO THIS IMPORTANT MARANHENSE WRITER/ HUMBERTO DE CAMPOS DURING HIS BIRTH CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY / SÃO LUÍS, Oct. 25th 1986.


    RAIMUNDO CORRÊA DE ARAÚJO
    (Pedreiras-MA, May 29th 1885 - São Luís, Aug. 24th, 1951). BA in Law; professor, jornalist, poet. State Public Library for many years from where he retired. Author of several poems books. Among them, 'Harpas de Fogo' (Fire Harpes - 1903). His first one, and 'Acrópole' (Acropole - 1960), postume publication one of the founders of the Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    BUST : by Flory Gama. With the honored's name engroreed in a bronze plate, says :
    TO/ CORRÊA DE ARAÚJO,/ THE LAST SABIÁ OF ATHENS - , HONOR FROM 'CATULO DA PAIXÃO CEARENSE' CULTURAL ASSOCIATION/ - FROM GUANABARA, MARANHENSE TROVADORES MO-VEMENT / MOMATRO - AND FROM SÃO LUÍS CITY MAYOR, BEING THE MAYOR DR./ HAROLDO TAVARES/ BY GUIMARÃES MARTINS INITIATIVE,/ SCULPTURE BY FLORY GAMA.

    Lower :

    TO GUIMARÃES MARTINS

    OH ! GUIMARÃES MARTINS, OUR POETS,
    - MAVIOSOS SABIÁS, GOLDEN VINS-VINS,
    SWEET CORRUPIOUS - SELECTED SOULS,
    IN WHICH ART HAS REACHED ALL OBJECTIVES,
    THEY CAN DIE, GUIMARÃES MARTINS !
    YES, THEY CAN DIE ! BECAUSE FROM WHERE
    THEY ARE BURIED OUR INGRATITUDE,
    MUST BRING THEM, AGAIN, TO THE NOISE
    AND WILDNESS OF LIFE - SO FURIOUS
    SO BRUTAL AND MORTAL - YOUR HAND !
    AND TAKEN, BY YOU, FROM DEATH, THE GROUP
    OF SABIÁS - SOUL OF OUR PEOPLE,
    AND INCARNATION OF MOST TENDER BIRDS -
    THE WHOLE SOUL IN LAZY SONG
    MUST STAY IN ETERNAL MARBLES
    IN MARBLE PALM TREES - SINGING
    SINGING FOREVER.

    CORRÊA DE ARAÚJO.

    PEDREIRAS, 5.29.1885 - SÃO LUÍS, 8.24.1957
    (FROM MARANHENSE ACADEMY OF LITERATURE)
    SÃO LUÍS, 8.24.1974

    Notes : opposing what says in the plate, the poet's death year is 1951.


    RAIMUNDO DA MODA DE AZEVEDO
    (Mangunça Bay, Maranhense Town of Turiaçu, on board of São Luís vapor ship, May 13th, 1859 - Paris, Sep. 13th 1911) BA by São Paulo Law Faculty (1882). Public Prosecutor and, then, magistrate, charge that alterus with exe-cutive power places. Nomineed to diplomatic functions in Paris and Lisbon, never assumed them. One of the foun-ders of Brazil and Letters Academy and among the most important parnasians poets of Brazil. Author of the books 'Primeiros Sonhos' (First Dreams - 1882), 'Aleluias' (Alleluias - 1891), all of poems, and prose work. His celebries sonets 'As Pombas' (The Pigeons), 'Mal Secreto' (Secret Harm), 'Vinho de Hebe' (Hebe's Wine), etc.. Patron of chair #16, in The Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    BUST : sculptor's signature illegible. With plate : RAIMUNDO CORRÊA (sic)/ POET/ 5.13.1859 - 9.13.1911.


    JOÃO DUSHERE ABRANCHES
    (São Luís, Sep. 2nd 1867 - Petrópolis, Mar. 11th 1841). Doctor in Social and Political Sciences, honorary professor of the Heidelberg University, Germany, was the leader, in 1929, of the brazilian delegation to the fundamental stone celebration of Nossa Senhora Thereza of Jesus Basilic, in Lisieux, where the Cardeal Charost, representing pope Pio XI, together with George Goyau, from French Academy, was among speechers. Dushere de Abranches also dedicated to teaching and principally, to jornalism. Poligraph, he left a great and varied work, up to 165 volumes. Patron of chair #40, in The Maranhense Academy of Literature.

    BUST : Sculptor, C. Lima, 1954. Plate says : DUSHERE DE ABRANCHES/ JORNALIST AND POLIGRAPH/ 9.2.1867 - 3.13.1941.

    JOSÉ DO NASCIMENTO MORAES
    (São Luís March 19th 1882 - Feb. 21st 1958). Teacher, poet, romancist and principally jornalist, condition in which he conquered the recognition of his fellow citizens. Owner of amazing argumentation capacity, had memorable polemicals in São Luís Press. Author, among other books, of 'Puxos e Repuxos' (Pulls and Pulls back - 1910), 'Vencidos e Degenerados' (Conquered and Degenerates - 1915) and 'Neurose do Medo' (Fear Neurosis -1930). Member of the Maranhense Academy of Literature, was its president twice.

    BUST : Sculptor, Aug. Romano - Rio, 1954. Engraved in bronze: Prof / Nascimento de Moraes. Plate : NASCIMENTO DE MORAES/ "I AM A FIGHTER" / 3.19.1882 - 2.21.1958.


    ODORICO MENDES:
    In a small square built in a site bought from Major Freitas, between Hortas and Remédios Streets. The bust, by the sculptor Rodolfo Bernardelli, was inaugurated in Aug. 18th, 1905, and underneath is buried the body of this impor-tant man, brought from Kensek-Green Cemetery, London, in 1913. Unhappily, two marble tombstone ---that came from London were taken away from there, during a remodeling trying, and they had these inscriptions: "Manoel (sic.) Odorico Mendes. Extraordinary brazilian poet. Politic and extreme patriot. He was born in Maranhão (Brazil) on January 24th, 1799. Died in London, August 17th, 1864".


    SANTOS DUMONT:
    In a square with the same name, in front of Cunha Machado Airport. Inaugurated by the Birth Centennial Comme-morations Executive Commission of the Honored. It says, there, in a plate posted in the pedestal : IN HONOR OF THE COMMUNITY / ALBERTO SANTOS DUMONT/ (AVIATION FATHER)/ PATRON OF BRAZILIAN AIR FORCE (FAB). The square and the bust were inaugurated in April, 1973.


    NETTO GUTERRES:
    In honor to the maranhense doctor Luís Alfredo Netto Guterres (Alcântara, April 4th, 1880 - São Luís, June 20th, 1934), called the Poor People's Doctor for his charity and dedication to the sick people, to whom which he helped where they lived, and, if necessary, buying their medicines. This bust is in the Hospital Geral Square (Officially named Netto Guterres Square - Decree # 308 of Nov. 3rd, 1951, but with plate of "Madre Deus"), and it's a work of the sculptor Mauro Lima. We can read in the plate in the pedestal : TO GREAT NETTO GUTERRES/ MARA-NHENSE DOCTOR SYMBOL/ OF HIS PEOPLE GENEROSITY,/ IN HONOR FROM LIBANESE COLONY OF MARANHÃO/ June 20th, 1948.


    STATUES

    TAMANDARÉ ADMIRAL ( ALMIRANTE TAMANDARÉ ) ¾ RAISED IN FIRST HALF-ORANGE OF Avenida beira-mar ¾ seaside Avenue, close to Maria Aragão Square. Over marble pedestal, where we can read : MONUMENT/ TO / JOAQUIM MARQUES LISBOA ADMIRAL/ "TAMANDARÉ MARQUIS"/ BRAZILIAN NAVY PATRON INAUGU-RETED IN DEC. 10 th, 1994/ NAVY WEEK.

    Notes : The wrong usage of preposition 'de' (of), between the surnames Marques and Lisboa was coined and subjected, lately, to relowing, in an attempt to have it erased. We believe in work execution incorrection what resulted in the honored seeris to be scholium, desproportional members and in an unconfortable position.

    BENEDITO PEREIRA LEITE (Rosário-MA, Oct. 4th 1857 - Héres - French March 6th 1909). In the square with the same name, previously called, by order : João do Vale Plaza or Duval, Assembly Square and May 13 Public Gar-den.

    Inaugured in 1911, this statue is a work by the french sculptor Émile Décorchement. Rested over imponent white marble pedestal, where we can read : 1857 - 1909 TO/ BENEDICTO LEITE/ THE/ MARANHÃO STATE. Lower, in an open book over laurel branch, to make the sentence spoken while, state Governor, disageed with the idea of closing school, to save money : "I'd rather cut my hand than to sign the suppression of Mastership or Model Schools". Besides Governor, Benedito Leite was a federal deputy, a senator and a great political leader of Maranhão.

    CATULO DA PAIXÃO CEARENSE (São Luís, Oct. 8th 1863 - Rio de Janeiro, May 10th 1946). Right across from Nhozinho Santos Stadium. Statue of Edgard Corrêa Lima, inaugured on sep. 26th 1961, by initiative of maranhense Guimarães Martins, Catulo's great friend and deniable of his Copyrights.

    JOÃO FRANCISCO LISBOA (Pirapemas-MA, March 22nd 1812 - Lisboa, April 26th 1863). One of the most impor-tant person of the maranhense generation that presided brazilian culture, between the 40's and 60's of last century and which entered to literary history with the nickname of Maranhense Group.Customs critic, jornalist, historian, João Francisco Lisboa is considered one of founders of the brazilian prose. His work was edited in a serie of Timon newspaper, and represents a fundamental witness about colonial Brazil, with special attention to Maranhão.

    João Francisco Lisboa statue nowadays is in front of the Post Office and of the Environment Buil-dings, but initially was placed in front of Carmo Convent, where was inaugurated on Jan. 1st 1918, by Maranhense Academy of Literature iniciative. Work by the French sculptor Jean Maagrou, laid over imposing marble pedestal, which we do not know where it is.

    DUQUE DE CAXIAS. In the square with the same name, in front of 24th Army Head quarters (João Paulo Sector), place built in ascendant plans. Inaugured in 1945, together with the square. This statue, equestrian of Army Patron and Province of Maranhão President (Feb. 7th 1840 to May 13th 1841) and a work of sculptor Edgar Corrêa Lima.

    GONÇALVES DIAS - The monument erected to Gonçalves Dias domains the beautiful square to which the poet is named after, although the tradition says to invigorate the second of the old popular denominations (Remédios Plaza, Lovers Plaza), for being beautiful and accordingly with Ana Amelia's beloved. It's for sure the most artistic and imponent of São Luís. Had its fundamental stone sttleq on Aug. 10th 1872 and was inaugured on Sep. 7th 1873. Made entirely out of marble, it's from base to top 15,5 m high, out of which 2,2 m are of the statue which pedestal is a styled lineage. From his right hand, falling down there is a laurel crown; on his left hand, at his chest, he holds paper rolls; at the poet's feet, the lyre and a mask. In the pedestal base, the faces of these liminaries : Odorico Mendes, Sotero dos Reis, João Lisboa and Gomes de Sousa. Nowadays the monument does not have the elegant fence that used to protect it. It's too much aggression and we are sorry that vandals have damaged, with animal fury, these faces, which highly evoke Maranhense Humanism. Portuguese sculptor Pedro Carlos Quadril work, done in Lisbon, at Germano José Sales.

    MIGUEL VIEIRA FEREIRA - statue on the belt way ring avenue almost in front of the Fish market with this inscripti-on : DOCTOR MIGUEL VIEIRA PEREIRA/ BORN IN 'FONTE DAS PEDRAS' (STONE FOUNTAIN) IN THIS CITY OF /SÃO LUÍS, STATE OF MARANHÃO, ON DECEMBER 10TH, 1837, Ph. D. IN PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS SCIENCES, ENGINEER/ ABSOLUTIST, MENTOR AND FOUNDER OF FIRST REPUBLICAN CLUB OF BRAZIL /IN THE CITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO, SIGNATORY OF/ THE FAMOUS REPUBLICAN MOVEMENT, IN 1870./ FOUNDER AND FIRST PASTOR OF BRAZILIAN EVANGELIC CHURCH, FIRST ONE IN BRAZIL FOUNDED ON SEP. 11th, 1879 - HIS DISCIPLES LIVING IN BRAZIL, THE ERECTION OF THIS MONUMENT TO A SO HIGH PERSONALITY OF OUR COUNTRY. There we have, with no doubts, the longest inscription existing in public monuments of São Luís. We are sorry about the graphic errors in the capital of Maranhão.


    INSTITUTIONS

    MARANHENSE ACADEMY OF LITERATURE ( Academia Maranhese de Letras )
    Paz Street, 84 - Downtown.

    Founded on Aug. 10th 1908, in the noble room of the State Public Library. Compounded originally of 20 members and not until 1946 organized with the classic board : 40 chairs. Named Antônio Lobo house, had as its founders, besides this leader and ideas revolutionary : Alfredo de Assis Castro, Astolfo Marques, Barbosa de Godois, Corrêa de Araújo, Clodoaldo de Freitas, Domingos Barbosa, Fran Pacheco, Godofredo Viana, I. Xavier de Carvalho, Ribeiro de Amaral (first president) and Armando Vieira da Silva. The Academy publishes books and one magazine; prepares conference, expositions and book casting. Maintain, in permanent way, Ribeiro do Amaral Literary Contest, with Domingos Barbosa (tails) and César Marques (research, essay, memory or history, about any other maranhense life aspect), awards, which assure the awarded works publication and. Confers Antônio Lobo award to the best book published during the year. Also has other services, such as Maranhense Bookstore (in the owned - building, entrance by theater Street) and the mordomo Régio Hotel, in Alcântara.

    STATE PUBLIC FILLING CHOUSE ( Arquivo Publico do Estado )
    Nazaré Street, 218 - Downtown.

    Culture Secretary Organ. Criated by decree 5.266, of Jan. 21st 1974, started to operate on Savedra Street. It's been in a beautiful building of its own property since 1978, after a carefully remodeling of that place, under the government of Nunes Freire. It has datas from the colonial period, although more representative about Empire and Republic. It has a laboratory for papers conservation and restauration work, where a very competent group works.

    BENEDITO LEITE PUBLIC LIBRARY (Biblioteca Publica Benedito Leite )
    Panteon Square

    Called like this by decree 1316, of Apr. 8th 1958. The library project was proposed by doctor Antô-nio Pedro da Costa Ferreira, Pindaré Baron to be, to the General Province Conseling, on Jul. 8th 1826, which approved it. But only in 1829, they started this project. The then Province President, Cândido José de Araújo Viana, Sapucaí Marquis to be, asked for financial resources to the Emperor, who denied saying that he had budget limita-tions. Araújo Viana decided , then, to popular subinscription, with what he could see the library be open to the public on May 3rd 1831. It used to be on the second floor or Carmo Convent, from where it left in 1872, to come back about 10 years later, during which had a terrible peregrination, that took it to Egito Street (actual building of Legisla-tive Assembly, then Popular School 11 of August), and to the back side of the Cathedral. Since its foundation up to 1951, when got its own property, large and definitive for "dry and meca", as an undesirable emcumbrance, with its books trown in wagons and badly treated, sometimes getting lost in the successive moving that happened. The Library has a precious collection in which we notice rare works section nad newspapers section.

    JOSUÉ MONTELLO HOUSE CULTURAL ( Casa de Cultura Josué Montello )
    Hortas Street, 327

    Cultural Secretary Organ. Criated by Law # 4.351 of Oct. 31st, 1981. Inaugurated on Jan. 23rd 1983, in the Two-Floor building in Fonte do Ribeirão, where today is the State Cultural Counsel. It has an important maranhense and general library, which helps researchers and studions, for local research. Its programatic activities gather courses, expositions, symposiuns, debates, bibliographic consultation, research help, publishing, professio-nal probation, and so on. There have been incorporated to the JMCH collection permanent donations from the writer whose name is given to the place, and are compounded of bibliographic material, original of his books, critic fortune, diplomas, condecorations, correspondence and iconography.

    ODYLO COSTA, FILHO CRIATIVITY CENTER ( Centro de Criatividade Odylo Costa Filho )
    Praia Grande (behind the market)

    Cultural Secretary Organ, has its origin in the Visual Arts Center (Cenarte), criated by Law # 4.102 of Nov. 6th, 1979. Its a beautiful and spacious plac totally recuperated and adapted, is an assemblage that shelte-red several commercial houses, among of which the companies Lima Faria and Moreira Sobrinho. Inaugured on Dec. 26th, 1988, has got a theater, dance room, cinema, bookstore, handcraft store, cafeteria and several shops.


    DOMINGOS VIEIRA FILHO POPULAR CULTURE CENTER ( Centro de Cultura Popular Domingos Vieira Filho )
    Giz Street, 221.

    Cultural Secretary Organ, criated by Law # 3.225 of Dec. 6th, 1971. The decree 8.293, of oct. 2nd 1981, defined his actual denomination. It has an important collection related to maranhense popular culture, and a especialized library in popular culture. Maintain permanent expositions and also temporaries. During sometime, starting in 1987, there was this 'Friday at 6' project, showing the popular culture aspect about which there was a competed meeting every last friday of the month.

    CEUMA - CENTRO DE ENSINO UNIFICADO DO MARANHÃO

    Started its activities in 1990, in Meng School, transfered to its own building, in Renascença II sec-tor, Anapurus street. Minister the courses of Economy, Accounting, Business, Administration, Pedagogy, Letters, and Law.

    REPUBLICAN MEMORY FOUNDATION ( Fundação da Memoria Republicana )
    Palma Street, 502 - Downtown

    Philantropic cultural entity, without profitable objectives, criated by the Senator and Republic Ex-President José Sarney.

    It holds courses, congresses, symposiums, seminars, training, temporary expositions, one of the most important national event in the field of plastic arts, located in the old and imposing 'Convento das Mercês' (Mercês Convent), it has 10.284,41 m2 of ground, with 5.217,50 m2 of built area. It has a very rich heap constituted of 40 thousand books, 500 thousand printed documents and 80 thousand hand writings, besides 70 thousand newpapers cutting, 1.500 16mm films, 4.000 hours of VHS and UMATIC tapes, 2.500 sacra art pieces, medals, diplomas, ornaments and about 70 thousand letters received by the Institution Patron.

    It has a choral and a musical band which represents a laudable education work done with Madre de Deus and surroundings communities.

    Daily opened to public visitation.


    GEOGRAPHIC AND HISTORIC INSTITUTE OF MARANHÃO
    Santa Rita street, 230 (2nd floor)
    Founded in December, 1925, denominated Geographic and Historic Institute, which changed to the actual name in the statutary renewing of April 22nd, 1951. Called Antônio Lopes House, it has nowadays 60 mem-bers, edita a magazine and, by institutional action and its members, produce Geographical and Historical Studies of Maranhão.


    HISTORIC AND ARTISTIC MUSEUM OF MARANHÃO
    Sol Street, 302.

    Criated by Law nº 2.923 of november 8th, 1968, was inaugurated on July 28th, 1973. To its organi-zation the museum logist Jenny Dreyfus and the maranhense intelectual José Jansen worked hard, both supported by Josué Montello. HAMM is located in a beautiful 2 store building, constructed in XIX century and had, among its owners, the family of a maranhense genius, Gomes de Sousa, Sousinha. Its collection has about 7.000 pieces, among objectls and documents. Cultural Secretary Organ. Open to public visit from 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. on Saturday, Sundays an holidays; on the weekdays, from 12:45 p.mo to 6:45 p.m.

    Note : The visits to the museum have been canceled for more than five years, because of remode-ling work which up to now haven't been concluded.

    As sections of the museum the following places work form Tuesday to Friday, form 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., and on Saturdays and Sundays, from 2 p.m. to 6 p.m.


    LAGY LAJOS GALLERY ( Galeria Nagy Lagos )
    Estrela Street, 124.

    Temporary expositions of plastic arts objective. Its named after hungarian painter Nagy Lagos Endre, a erudit that rooted in São Luís, had family and died here.


    MUSIC

    Carlinhos Veloz

    Veloz was born on December 3rd, 1965 by the margins of the Capibaribe river, in Recife - Pernambuco. He is the youngest child of a family of musicians and started his career at the age of 9 as a crooner in his hometown. The kid became Carlinhos Veloz in May, 1985 on the shore of his greatest inspiration: the Tocantins river. The singer, who claims being pernambucano biologically, says his artistic life really started by the river - though he never for-gets his roots in the maracatu, the frevo and the ciranda ( dances from Pernambuco), which he included in his first record with a heartfelt homage to the Itamaracá island, home of the ciranda. Veloz is considered on of the singers most loved by the Maranhense audience, his concerts being therefore very sought-after whether they are in the Theater or in popular concert houses throughout the city.

    Contact for Presentations (098) 971-6737.


    César Nascimento

    César Nascimento was born in Teresina, PI, and raised in Caxias, Maranhão. He moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1973, where at the age of sixteen (1978), formed his rock band Vale do Som. In 1981, Nascimento returned to São Luís, where he performed his first concert, Canto Sereno (Mild Song), at the Arthur Azevedo Theater, together with singer and composer Sérgio Brenha.

    Contact for Presentation (098) 235-2264/971-5408


    Erasmo Dibel

    Erasmo Dibel, born in Carolina (Maranhão), engaged in the Brazilian musical movement in 1982 when he joined the bands Natureza and Roda Viva. In 1986 Dibel started his solo career, participating in various music contests throughout the country, specially the FABER (from Imperatriz, in all of them), the Femucic (from Maringá, Paraná) and the Canta Nordeste (São Luís, Fortaleza and Recife). He also took part of the Segunda de Arte (Art Monday) project in 1982, with the song Vidente (fortune teller), which became the most heard one in the radios of the capital. In 1993 his first album, Sarará, was released and in the same year Dibel was chosen the Artist of the Year by journalists and people related to the cultural movement. His second album, O Amor é Azul (Love is Blue), was released in 1996 and was regarded by the critics as the establishment of Erasmo Dibel as the greatest Maranhense composer of the recent generation (from 1992 on).

    Contacts for Presentation : (098) 723-2895


    Mano Borges - Bangladesh

    Mano Borges grew up listening to the sound of the drums in São Luís. He had his first musical instrument at the age of 17 and started producing music as a percussionist. A household name, Borges has brought many innovati-ons to the Maranhense music with his talent (interpretação livre de "... é sangue bom, é sangue nosso, é sangue novo." N. do T.), which reflects with the possibility of form and meaning working together and much more. All this justifies the outstanding presence of Mano Borges on the stage of Brazilian Popular Music.

    Contact for Presentation : (098) 235-1098/971-6542


    Beto Pereira

    After the huge success of Terecô (by Cedro Music), singer and compose Beto Pereira releases a new work: Asas da Canção (The Wings of the Song - also by Cedro Music). His growing audience is delighted by his music, which is a rich blend of reggae, salsa, merengue, tambor-de-crioula (Creole drums, a typical Maranhense dance) and, of course, Bumba-meu-Boi. The track Asas da Canção brings the very special participation of Amelinha in a romantic, delicate melody. In this latest record, among heartfelt romantic songs and dancing beat, Beto Pereira hails his greatest idol with an excellent recording of Tempo Rei (Time, the King), by Gilberto Gil.

    Asas da Canção confirms Pereira's talent and drive and reveals a great Northern popular artist in rapid ascen-sion to the musical scenery of Brazil, flying his open wings towards national recognition from North to South ... a very natural and deserved gift for someone who has got the blessings of Gilberto Gil and Alcione. Go for it, Beto!

    Contacts for presentations : (098) 246/6622/971-3017 and (011) 239-1431


    Papete - Bandeira de Aço

    Born in São José de Ribamar Viana, in the municipaity of Bacabal, Maranhão, it was in São Luís that Papete began living with the sounds and rythms which compose the magic and the mystery of popular culture . In the capital he gave the first steps towards a professional career that started in São Paulo, where he went to at the age of 20. An eccletic artist, Papete gathers the skills of a producer, arranger, percussionist, interpreter and author to make some of the songs which have been applauded by Maranhenses, specially during our June Festivals.

    Contacts for presentation : (098) 226-4624


    Gerude - Jamaica São Luís

    Gerude, a singer and composer, started his artistic career performing at the Sofitel Quatro Rodas Hotel during four months, after which he played in various restaurants of São Luís. In Fortaleza he performed at the Flor da Pele Bar and was applauded by the public and by the critic. In 1984 Gerude had his first grand performance at the Arthur Azevedo Theater, called "Nossa Vez" (Our Turn).

    Contacts for presentation : (098) 226-4624


    Daphne

    Daphne was the first Maranhense rock band to release a CD ("Semblantes" - Faces) and exists since 1988. The band is presently composed by Alexandre Carvalho (guitar/vocals), Otávio Praga (bass), Paulo Pelegrini (keyboard) and Nuna Gomes ( drums). During the concerts, besides its own compositions, Daphne also performs creative cover versions of songs by Pink Floyd, U2, Beatles, Oasis, Greenday and the Brazilian bands Legião Urbana, Barão Vermelho and Engenheiros do Hawaii. They performed at the Athur Azevedo Theater on august 29th, 1996, officially releasing their CD Semblantes. For the first time, the most important theater of the region opened its gates for a rock band.

    Contacts for presentation : (098) 235-2398/235-5656 - Giberto Mineiro, producer
    (098) 235 02-31 - Paulo Pelegrini, keyboard
    (098) 243-1314 - Andréa Expositor, official fan-club.

    ibel as the greatest Maranhense composer of the recent generation (from 1992 on).

    Contacts for Presentation :

    Canal Tourism

    Dial Tourism
    (0**98) 3244 4500
    (0**98) 3231 4696
    Know where to look for tourist information when it is in Maranhão


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