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    ENVIRONMENT AND GEOGRAPHIC ASPECTS

    LOCALIZATION

    The State of Maranhão is situated between the parallels of 1o 02'30'' and 10o 15'43'' of south latitude and the Meridians of 41o49'11'' and 48o45'25'' of west longitude.

    AREA

    The state has an area of 333.365,6 Km2, the 8th in size of the Country and the 2nd of the North East region in extenuation.

    LIMITS

    In the North , Atlantic Ocean(640Km)
    In the East/Southeast, Piauí State(1365Km)
    In the West, Pará State(798Km)
    In the South/Southwest, Tocantins State(1060Km)

    COASTLINES

    Maranhão has the second longest coastline of the Country and Northeast, in extenuation with 640Km; the continental platform is of 21.504 square miles.

    BOUNDARIES

    The boundaries of the state have a total of 3.863Km, 90% of which are Rivers.

    TOTAL OF TOWNS

    There are 136 installed towns, with the following distribution by micro region:
    Northeast( SUDENE incentive area): all the 136 towns
    Legal Amazon ( SUDAM incentive area ):111 towns


    * Note: During the year of 1996, 81 new towns were created in the state but they have not
    been installed yet.


    VEGETATION

    Equatoria Forest( more than 10.000Km2 )
    Jungle ( transition ares ) / Palm trees
    Cerrado
    Pruderies
    Mangroves
    Resigns

    CLIMATE

    Hot humidity ( west )
    Hot semihumity ( north - south )
    Hot semi arid ( east )

    TEMPERATURE

    Medium: 26.0 to 27.0 Celsius degree
    Maximum: 40.0 Celsius degree
    Minimum: 20.3 Celsius degree

    MEDIUM PLUVIOMETRIC

    Its is between 1.000 to 2.000 mm/year ( reaching exceptionally 2900mm/year in some areas ).

    RIVERS

    Itapecuru River ( 1090Km )
    Mearim River ( 966Km )
    Grajaú River ( 690 Km )

    NATURAL PATRIMONY ( 1995 )

    National Parks
    Lençóis Maranhenses National Park . Federal Degree # 86.060 of June 2nd, 1981. Primeira Cruz and Barreirinhas Town. Area of 155.000ha.

    State Parks:
    Bacanga State Park. Decree # 7.545, of March 7th, 1980 and decree of April 10th, 1984. São Luís town. Area of 3.075ha.

    Itapiracó State Park. Decree # 3.150, of July 2nd, 1993. São Luís and São José de Ribamar Towns. Area of 322ha.

    Mirador State Park. Decree # 7.641, of June 4th, 1980. Mirador Town. Area of 700.000ha.

    Parcel Manoel Luís Marine State Park. Decree # 11.902, of June 11th, 1991, readapted in October 9th,1991. Bacurí Town. Area of 45.237,2ha.

    Jansen Lagoon Ecologic Park. State Law # 4.878, of June 23rd,1988. São Luís Town. Area of 150ha.

    ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AREA

    Environment Protection Area of Preguiças River mouth - "Little Lençóis" - annexed lagged region. Decree # 11.899, of June 11th,1991, readapted in October 11th,1991. Barreirinhas, Tutóia and Araioses Towns. Area of 269.684,3ha.

    Maranhense Occidental Lowland Environment Protection Area. Caranguejos Island. Decree # 11.900, of June 11th, 1991, readapted in October 5th, 1991. Anajatuba, arari, Bequimão, Cajapió, Cajari, Lago Verde, Matinha, Mirinzal, Moção, Olho D'Agua das Cunhas, Palmerândia, Penalva, Perí-Mirim, Pindaré-Mirim, Pinheiro, Pio XII, Santa Helena, São Bento, São João Batista, São Mateus, São Vicente Férrer, Turiaçu, Viana, Vitória do Mearim Towns and Caranguejos Island ( Cajapió Town ). Area of 1.775.035,6ha.

    Maranhenses Reentrance's Environment Protection Area. Decree # 11.901, of June 11th,1991, and readapted in October 9th, 1991. Alcântara, Bacurí, Bequimão, Candido Mendes, Carutapera, Cedral, Cururupu, Godofredo Viana, Guimarães, Luís Domingues, Mirinzal and Turiaçu Towns. Area of 2.680.911,2ha.

    Maracanã Region Environment Protection Area. Decree # 12.103, of October 1st,1991. São Luís Town. Area of 1.831ha.

    Alto Preguiça/Miritiba/Upaon-Açu Environment Protection Area. Decree # 12.428, of June 5th,1992. Axixá, Barreirinhas, Humberto de Campos, Icatú, Morros, Paço do Lumiar, Presidente Jucelino, Primeira Cruz, Rosário, Santa Quitéria do Maranhão, Santa Rita, São Benedito do Rio Preto, São Bernado, São José de Ribamar, São Luís, Tutóia and Hurbano Santos Towns. Area of 1.535.310ha.

    Tabatinga Hill Environment Protection Area. Decree # 12.103, of June 6th,1990. Alto Parnaíba Town.

    Gurupí Biological Reservation. Federal Decree # 96.614, of January 12th,1988. Carutapera and Bom Jardim Towns. Area of 314.650ha.




    EXTRATIVISTS RESERVATIONS

    Mata Grande Extrativist Reservation. Federal Decree # 532, of May 20th, 1992. Imperatriz and João Lisboa Towns. Area of 10.500ha.

    Ciriaco Extrativist Reservation. Federal Decree # 534, of May 20th,1992. Imperatriz Town. Area of 7.050ha.

    POPULATION
    TOTAL POPULATION OF THE STATE.

    1991 1995 Projection
    Inhabitants 4.930.253 5.240.000
    Demographic
    Density 14,8 In/Km2 15,7 In/Km2

    LARGEST TOWNS

    São Luís, the State Capital 696.371 Inhabitants
    Imperatriz 276.502 ,,
    Caxias 145.725 ,,
    Santa Luzia 116.525 ,,
    Codó 111.967 ,,
    Timon 107.439 ,,
    Bacabal 98.793 ,,
    Barra do Corda 90.820 ,,
    Açailandia 83.820 ,,
    Pinheiro 82.432 ,,

    DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION

    60% - Rural
    40% - Urban

    DEMOGRAPHIC GROWING TAX

    1980-1991: 1,91% per year.
    1970-1980: 2,86% per year.

    ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION - EAP

    2.099.176 People, corresponding to 42,6 % of total population.



    OCCUPIED POPULATION

    2.055.757 people, with the following distribution by kind of activity:
    Agropecuária 52,6
    Industry 6,4
    Civil Constriction 4,7
    Commerce/Services 36,3

    ECONOMY

    PIB ( 1994 estimate ), at Market price.

    PIB PIB/PER CAPITA GROWING TAX
    US$Billion US 1980/94

    Maranhão 8,5 1.629 6,41
    Northeast 99 2.212 2,87
    Brazil 565.676 1,78

    *Note: SUDENE, Conjunctural Bulletim ( Northeast of Brazil ) July/1995

    PER CAPITA INCOME OF EAP:

    Distribution ( %), by Minimmum Salary Class ( 1991 )
    From 0 to 3 88,4
    From 3 to 20 11,0
    More than 20 0,6
    Total of EAP 100,0

    * SOURCE: IBGE ( Geographic and Statitics Brazilian Institute )

    PRIMARY PRODUCTION

    1991 1995
    Grans -------(in tons)
    Rice 976.250 950.681
    Corn 332.543 361.111
    Beans 56.194 42.007
    Soybeans 8.034 162.375

    Cattle( Heads)
    ovinos 3.948.710 3.998.379
    Caprinos 512.551 499.000
    Suínos 2.876.138 2.796.000

    OTHERS

    Milk 134.399.000 131.075.000
    Seafood 65.000 69.531
    Bee Honey 6.087 12.302

    INDUSTRY
    Type Number of % of Participation in VTI(1985)
    Establishment
    Foo 925 37,5
    Wood 596 22,0
    Mechanical 228 1,2
    Non metalic mineral 212 12,4
    Clothes,Shoes,Material Artefacts 193 0,6
    Metalurgical 184 1,1
    Furniture 179 2,0
    Conservation and Remodeling
    Services 171 ----
    Printing and EDITORIAL 103 3,1
    Others 138 30,1

    *Note: IBGE, Economical Census.
    FIEMA( State of Maranhão Industry Federation ), Maranhão Industrial Cathalog,
    1994/1995.

    ALUMAR ( ALUMINIUM OF MARANHÃO) PRODUCTION - 1995

    Aluminium 358.000 tons.
    Alumina 1.042.000 tons.

    PRODUCTION TRANSPORTED BY COMPANHIA VALE DO RIO DOCE - 1995

    Iron Ore 43.865.600 tons.
    Manganese Ore 1.034.800 tons.

    INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT

    Created by State Decree # 7646, divided in 15 areas ( modules ), with a total area of 19.712,17ha. "A" Module with 317,8ha., has got basic infrastructure ( urbanization, pavement and street, water supply and electrical energy). In "A" Module has been implated and are in activity 21 Industries; 10 are in Implantation process; 9 are with the projects approved, lands bought and less than 5% of works done; 2 with consultant letters approved.


    In the other modules, there are 35 Industries implanted, but only 14 are not in operation or with reserved area.

    TOURISM

    Cathegories Number of Classified Establishement Number of Rooms Number of Beds
    5 Stars 02 320 627
    4 Stars 01 119 238
    3 Stars 03 364 602
    2 Stars 02 101 382
    SubTotal 08 904 1849
    Nonclassified 21 636 1284

    * Source: MARATUR ( Tourism Enterprise of Maranhão )

    Hotels Occupation Medium Tax.

    Medium Tax(%) 1994 1995
    4 and 5 Stars Hotels 40.7 45.7
    3 Stars Hotels 50.7 60.3
    2 stars Hotels 30.0 37.9

    * Touristic Atractive Disponibility:

    640 Km of Coastline with beaches, in the great majority, natural. Enphasizing Araçagy, Calhau, Caolho, Olho Dágua, Raposa and Guia Beaches.

    LENÇÓIS MARANHENSES NATIONAL PARK.

    Considered the unique "desert" of the Country because of its dunes which are as high as a 3 floor building, scenary that changes into a huge oassis full of sweet and clear water lagoons, that spread out over an area up to 155.000ha, during winter time.

    PARCEL DE MANOEL LUÍS MARINE STATE PARK.

    Largest coral bank of South America and deposit of sank ships.

    LENÇÓIS AND PARNAÍBA DELTA NATIONAL PARKS.

    One of the four most known of the world, together with Nilo River Delta (Africa), Mekong River Delta ( Asia), Mississipi River Delta ( North America ).

    The Parnaíba Delta has 80 islands and isles, being the principal Cajú island, which preservs all the beauty and untouched richness, that makes it the unique along Brazilian Coastline. Determined Environment Protection Area, the island is one of the most beautiful ecological paradise, where live hundreds of kinds of birds and animals.


    FÍSICO SPOT

    Industrial memory of Maranhão from XVIII Century and Tamancão Spot, where there used to be a rice production industry, with a lot of wharehouse, embarcation access and a complex of channels used for tides potential usage.

    ARCHITETONIC PATRIMONY

    With an assemblage dated since the first headquater from XVII Century. It has an area of 220ha., with sudden elevation topography of about 20 to 30 meters high and the central plato, where there is most part of the Historical Assemblage. The Historical Center has about 4.000 Reals of Architetonic and Historical values, with constructions dated from Colonial and Imperial Period, when Maranhão was the most properous economy of the Country, after Salvador, Recife and Rio de Janeiro.

    Great number of edifications have the front wall covered with Portuguese tiles, which gives São Luís the title of " City opf the Tiles". Besides this, we noticed Catarina Mina Alley ( where the freeded slave used to live, whom got to be rich ); Comércio Plaza ( Main Commercial Center during Colonial Period ); Carmo Plaza, Arthur Azevedo Theater, Sagração Dock, Beckman Pyramid ( raised where Manoel Beckman was hanged, leader of the Revolutionary Movement against the control of Companhia de Comércio e Grão Pará ), Memorial Stone, Leões Palace ( where the Frenchmen built the Fort Saint Louis, in 1612 ); Lá Ravardière Palace and Mercês Convent( Convent of Merceary Order which construction started in 1645 and nowadays holds Fundação da Memória Republicana (holds documents, films, books, paintings and other importants things which belonged to the Republic Memory, donated by the maranhense ex President José Sarney ).


    MUSEUM PATRIMONY

    Represented by Sacret Art Museum, which is in Barão do Grajaú Building, from XIX Century, with 300 pieces of collections from imaginary, goldsmith's shop, indumentary and religious ornaments ( assemblage of mass glasses, procession lamps, vases of saint oils, original crown which Dom Pedro sent to Alcântara and the silver resplender of Desterro Church); Visual Arts Museum which is in a three floor colonial building, holding tiles collection, painttings, sculptures, draw and the famous phinacotheca of Leões Palace ( 50 painttings from French and Italian artists), one of the most expressive from North/Northeast of Brazil in academic plastic arts of XIX Century; Cafuá das Mercês known as " Casa dos

    Negros" ( Negros House ) which represents one of the slaves selling and distribuiton marks of São Luís; Desterro Church, with a very expressive imaginary from XIX Century, its the oldest temple of Maranhão.

    Rich in variety handicraft, with domination of and Buriti leaves, this one used to make clothes. There is Ceprama - Handicraft Commercialization Center of Maranhão, besides Barreirinhas and Raposa which is 35 Km far from São Luís.

    Cuisine of incomparable taste and one of the most exoctic and delitious typical food of the Northeast, based mainly in seaffod.


    EXPORTATION

    PRODUCTS 1991 1995


    Iron Ore 32.131.480 42.991.079
    Manganese ore 359.624 1.022.949
    Pig Iron 376.917 763.189
    Soybeans ------------- 167.392
    Aluminun 332.484 240.802
    Aluminun 228.305 338.134

    Source: CODOMAR.

    IMPORTATION
    PRODUCTS 1991 1995 %
    * Bauxite 2.523.835 2.647.647 4,91
    * Oil Derivatives 1.071.761 1.905.021 7,75
    * Coal / Icoane 265.462 321.266 1,02
    * Caustic Solder 16.422 155.0479 3,55
    * Fertilizers 87.010 95.276 9,50
    * Wheat 80.077 69.963 2,63
    * General Gargo 26.509 26.541 0,12
    * Corn 27.051 9.025 - 66,64
    * Rice 8.029 ------------------------- - 100,00
    * Cement ------------------------- 47.949 100,00

    * Total 4.208.150 5.280.162 25,47

    INFRA-STRUCTURE
    Drainage
    Drinkable Water Sanitary Drain
    * System in operation 159 00.002
    * Links number 343.843 75.449
    * Attended people (urban area) 1.684.830 369.700
    * % of population urban served 75 16,4

    Electral Energy
    Attendance: all 136 tows and 876 place

    * Total Consumption 7.397 Gwh
    * Maranhão (CEMAR) 1.736 Gwh
    * ALUMAR (ELETRONORTE) 5.661 Gwh (3,3 times state of Maranhão Consumption)


    Telephony

    Terminals
    Convencional Telephones Installed 145.529
    Celulars Telephones Installed 41.061
    Convencional Telephones Contracted 40.366
    Celulars Telephones Contracted 41.750

    Places Attended 403
    Public telephones, in use 3.291

    TELMA - Telecomunications of Maranhão, fogether with EMBRATEL (Brazilian Telecomunications), TELEPISA (Telecomunications of Piauí) and TELECEARÁ (Telecomunications of Ceará), will start in 1996, the connection of São Luís, through Fortaleza, to a modern national and international net of optic fiber, with conclusion previewed to the end of 1998.


    TRANSPORTATION

    ROAD SYSTEM

    Maranhão has a Road System of 52.2 Thousand Km, according to the chart below:

    Km
    Total %Total Km Paved % Paved
    over the Total
    Road Net 52.207 100,00 4.174,6 8,0
    Federal Roads 2.817 5,4 2.229,7 79,1
    State Roads 5.014 9,6 1.944,9 38,8
    Municipals Roads 44.376 85,0 --------- ---------

    The following crossing represents the most important links of the state:
    * BR 010, Belém Brasilia Highway, which conects Maranhão to the South of the Country.
    * BR 316, Eastwest conection, linking Belém to Teresina and other Northeast Capitals.
    * BR 230, The Trans Amazonic Road.


    From the total state net, only 4.174,6 Km, or 8,0% are actually paid. Considering therefore only the state and federal roads, the participation of paved roads grows up to 53.3%. In particular, 38.8% of states roads are paved. The road plan to the 1996 - 1999 period projects an expressive raise in this relation, with 941Km pavement.

    RAILROAD SYSTEM

    The railroad system of the state is formed by the following railroad:

    * Carajás Railroad, 890Km long ( being 685 Km in Maranhense territory), linking the mineral reserves in Serra dos Carajás, Pará state to the Ponta da Madeira Port, in São Luís, Maranhão state. Controlled by Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), this railroad of last genaration is the most modern in operation in the country.

    * Norte Sul Railroad, with projection extention of 1.571Km, out of which 106Km inside Maranhense Territory, already in operation between Imperatriz and Açailandia. The construction of its second side, with 120Km, linking Estreito to Imoeratriz has already started. Also controlled by CVRD, will facilitate the agricultural center of south of the state and will allow the linking of São Luís Port Complex to the Central - West and South - Southeast regions of the country.

    * São Luís Teresina Railroad, beloning to Federal Railroad net has 454Km of extention and facilitates the Railroad link between Maranhão and other Northeast regions.

    * Estreito - Barreiras ( Bahia State ) Railroad, crossing Balsas, has viabiliaties studies to the Estreito - Balsas site being done by CVRD. When in operation, this Railroad will be an important way of transportation, linking the North of Bahia state and the South of Maranhão state to the Port - Railroad Complex of Maranhão.

    PORT SYSTEM

    The situation and geo-economic position of Maranhão and particularly São Luís, the strong meaning of the Central North multimodal corridor, the viability of basic insumes importation, such as petrolium from Central America and coal from the USA, the disponibilaty of minerals from the Carajás province, the geological formation of the state, reach in minerals of the future and non metalics such as argil, silex and red granites of Gurupi, the climate, with high incidence of sun and regular and heavy rains, necessary to the production of agricultural products, sugests the natural vocation of Maranhão and neighbor states to production of goods with exportation objectives and Port services work, with the objective of conecting commercialy the external influence region of São Luís Port Complex with the huge internal region.

    In 1995, this Port complex had a total cargo movement over 50.000.000 tons , being used more than 700 ships, number that should raise more than 6 million tons in cargo when we consider the opportunity of new business to Maranhão, according to the following:

    * Agricultural products such as soybean and corn,raising constantely may reach 800.000 tons/year of tropical fruits in a medium term;

    * Verticalization of agro-industries net, such as chicken production ( depednding on soybean, corn and manioc), cellulose industries, grains beneficiament, firtilizers production and so on;

    * Pig Iron Production and from Carajás Mineral, together with mineral coal production, with the objective of feeding the lack scrap iron in the modern steel mills;

    * Adiitonal production, from 1998 of 1.000.000 tons/year of Pig Iron ( which will add to the 8.000 tons/year nowadays ) and internalization of 800.000 tons/year of Mineral Coel;

    * Raising constantely of derivatives, reaching 2.000.000 tons/year plus the 1.700.000 tons/year nowadays, to support several economy segments in expention, including the internalization through the huge inland of the influence areas along the Central North corridor and redistribution by coasting navigation.

    * Raising in about 25% of the actual volume of bauxite, alumina, aluminium, cokue and caustique soder, because of Alumar expention plans;

    * Wood, beneficiatetd and furniture, nowadays exported through Belém (in spite of the Ports restructions), may reach up to 450.000tons/year exportible by São Luís;

    * Minimum internalization of 150.000 tons/year of cement;

    * Production of 500.00 tons/year of white cellulose of short fiber, coming out from a forest of 63.000ha. of eucaliptus( CELMAR Project);

    * Production of 2.000 tons/year of metalic copper, 8 tons/year of gold, 37 tons/year of silver, 200.000 tons/year of sulfuric acid ( H2SO4) at 98% in "Projeto Salobo Environment";

    * 300.000 tons/yer of phosphatic rock to fertilizes production, using part of the sulfuric acid produced by Projeto Salobro;

    * Pelotizing of part of the Iron/Maganise Ore, to supply part of the grains market.

    The natural condition of the Port safe and deep waters (23m), allow berthing of big ships( up to 400.00 dwt) and permit unit freight low costs due to the short distance economicaly from the rich market of the North Hemisphere( the distance of the American and European Ports about 4.000 miles, makes unit freights, in medium 25% lower when comparing to Southeast of Brazil Ports).

    The expantion possibility at Ponta da Madeira North ( 9 berthes possible ) and at South of Itaqui( possibilaty of 13 new berthes ) with the necessary work of dumping will allow the areas and berthes of São Luís Port Complex attend the natural Port industry characteristics and a volume of cargo at levels comparable to the biggest Ports of the Country such as Santos-São Paulo.

    At the moment, the Ports of Ponta da Madeira-CVRD and Itaqui have already got enough berthes to 100.000.000 tons/year of general cargo movement, besides the volume of about 45.000.000 tons/year actually movement.

    The Port services offers storage, together with containers, will allow getting ships with capacity 6.000TEU'S or more, disposing the services that will make the competiitve diferential of Maranhão, not only by the International Level Tax Practices as cargo movements safe and permanence minimun time allowing the reboarding in smaller containers ship. São Luís Port Complex would be changed in a feed port, in order to attend the coasting navigation of almost all South and Central America Ports.

    The receiving and storage of fuel at competitive prices, coming from Venezuela and central America Countries will allow to supply great part of North and Northeast region, through São Luís that, in a long term would become a petolium distribution center of world influence.

    The favorable position to get mineral coal from great producers like South Africa and North America, as well as the proximity of the coque stell mills demonstrate that São Luís has potentiality to be a distribuiton center of this mineral.

    Adding to these advantages the perspectives to operations such as "drawback", using the natural interlinks with regions like Venezuela, Caribe, Golf, North America Eastcoast, common market supplyer of energecti resouces, that we need, and high scale consumptions of manufactured products, opening business oportunities with return freights gains.

    This complex has the following units, with its respective characteristics and movements:

    PONTA DA MADEIRA TERMINAL

    It belongs to CVRD and it's an especialized terminal in barns exportation. It works maily with Iron and Maganise Ore, the company's own cargo coming from Carajás Mineral
    Province. the terminal also works for hiders. Actually, loads Pig Iron and Soybean. In 1995 it loaded 45 million tons of cargo.

    ALUMAR TERMINAL


    This terminal is used only for the Company's own cargo and has one bearth of 9 meters deep and it is equipped with a ship loader and unloader. In 1995 it had 3.500.000 tons of movement, including unloading of coal, coque, bauxite and solder, to the production of alumina and aluminium which are after loaded in their own terminal and the aluminium oppitionaly through Itaqui Port.

    ITAQUI PORT

    To receive general cargo and petroleum derivatives, Maranhão has got Itaqui Port, controlled by CODOMAR - Ducks Company of Maranhão. In 1995 it had 2.500.000 tons of movemente.
    The port has a 1.196 m long dock with 4 berthes, with 10 to 14 m deep, with port crane and suckers. A 5th berth is rented to CVRD and operate with solid grains.
    There is another pier under construction, able to get ships up to 250.000 DWT, to be used for derivatives.

    PORTO GRANDE INDUSTRIAL FISHING TERMINAL

    A state port, to fishing production, including in an factory.

    * Ponta da Espera Ferry Boat Terminal

    Passagers and whicles flux between São Luís and the main hand (Alcântara).
    Becides these ports, has got others, for different purposes :
    - Marine of Brazil Terminal
    - Ponta da Madeira Tag Boat Terminal
    - Port of São Luís
    - Handy Fishing Port
    - São José de Ribamar Port
    - Tutóia Port

    EDUCATION

    Schools (1995)
    Pre-school 1st Grade 2nd Grade University

    Federal -------------------- 02 04 01
    State 311 729 89 01
    Municipal 4.011 11.512 86 ----
    Private 651 624 164 01
    Total 4.973 12.867 343 03

    Inicial matriculations (1994)

    Pre-school 1st Grade 2nd Grade University

    Federal ----------------------- 1.284 2.886 9.809
    State 34.791 406.857 66.541 3.204
    Municipal 195.840 776.625 18.822 -------
    Private 59.638 13.165 29.095 -------
    Total 290.269 1.297.931 117.344 13.013

    State Net Functional Structure (1991)

    * Techinical -administrative 13.332
    * Experts 132
    * Docentes

    * Pre-school 320
    * 1st Grade 3.338
    * 2nd Grade 333

    Number of used rooms

    * Pre-school 675
    * 1st Grade 5.334
    * 2nd Grade 893

    Illeterally (Cense of 1991)
    Population over 5 years old : 2.048.596

    Several indicators (Cense of 1994)
    * Students that reach 8th grade 49.398
    * Population between 15 and 18 years in 1st grade still 280.809
    * Do not attend 1st Grade 396.406
    * --------- teachers in 1st Grade 18.113

    HEALTH

    Infantile Mortality

    * Tax of infantile mortality : 51,01 / 1.000 born alive (projection)


    Basic Net of Public Health
    Units of Health

    Federal 63
    State 32
    Municipal 1.040

    Hospital Net
    Number of Hospitals

    Federal --------
    State 19
    Municipal 52
    Private 216

    Number of beds in public net and agreement

    Public Hospitals 4.578
    Mix Units 957
    Agreement Hospitals 18.462

    INVESTIMENT OPPORTUNITES

    Agro-industries for food production
    * Oleaginous / Vegetal Oils : crushing of oleaginous for oil and refined production, margarine, bran and other co-products from say bean, corn and cotton;
    * Meats, Milk and others derived from animal production : cooled meat, frozen and industrialized, milk, cheese, buth and other deriveds production;
    * Fish and Crustaceous : complete fruzen sea food, filets or canned (Potential fo 120 thousand tons/year only in maritime industrial fishing);
    * Tropical Fruits : fresh tropical fruits "packing houses" such as manga, citric and othersl; frozen concentrated juices/ tomatoe derived ( pulp, juice and sances) and banana derived.

    Florestal Base Industry

    * Cellulose, paper, wood and reflorestation.

    Others primary base industries

    * Leather and fur beneficiation
    * Textile and clother industry
    * Drinks production
    * Remedies
    * Chemical products and perfumary articles


    Siderurgical and metal-mechanic industry

    * Melting, forgeries and trefilaries
    * Duckyard and instalation for naval repairments
    * Metalic packing industry, serial fabrication pieces and eletroeletronics in general.


    Ecological, cultural and enterprise tourism

    * Hostage (hotels and chalets); camping; restaurants in the touristic centers; entertainment activities; means of transportation; interperters and simultaneous translation.

    TECHNOLOGICAL CENTER

    Activities related to Aerospacial Industries; Science Center ( production of techinical scientific information); Naval campentry.

    Others options for investment

    * Aluminum Derivatives
    * Civil Construction
    * Ceramic
    * Transportation
    * Consuption Goods
    * Packing
    * Irrigation
    * Agricultural Implements
    * Biotechinology
    * Informatic

    Support Mechanisms

    The supports in the state circuit joy the ones given by the Federal Circuits, noticing the fact that Maranhão is the only brazilian state to get benefits, both from the Northeast Investimens Funds - FINOR, controlled by SUDENE/BNB and the Amazon Investiments Funds - FINAM controlled by SUDAM/BASA.

    FINOR - Northeast Investiment Funds

    The projects supported with resources from FINOR must preview a minimum participation of 30 % of other financing, since there is disponibilaty of adequated resources and the capacity of the payment is trully comproved noticing an internal tax of returning competible.
    Priority "A"considered projects, with minumum participation of 30 % if own resources, in the areas of :

    * Irrigated Agriculture
    * Totally Integrated agroindustry
    * Partially intregrated agroindustry, that assure through own production a minimum of 50 %, in weight of the raw material necessity to the industrial unity.
    * Biotechnology, fine chemistry and the ones to equipaments components and computers production.

    The industrial projects which are in Maranhão have equivalent mark to half of the required Total to arrange in priority "A".

    Income Tax Reduction

    "Up tu the financing year of 2001, the industrial or agricultural enterprises which are in operation in the SUDENE are will pay the Income Tax and additional non refundabel with a reduction of 50 % incidents over the exploration profit".

    Income Tax Exemption

    "The industrial agricultural enterprises which are in operation in the SUDENE area until December 31st, 2000 will be exempted of the income tax and additional non refundabel incidents over the exploration profit, during the years starting in the following financing year which the Enterprise starts up preparation".

    Exemption for remodeling expention and diversification

    "The industrial or agricultural Enterprises which are in operation of the SUDENE area, that will be remodeling expention and diversification until December 31st, 2000 will be exempted of the income tax and additional non refundable incidents over the exploration profit, during the years starting in the following financing year which the Enterprise starts up preparation".

    Reinvestments

    "The Enterprises that have industrial, agroindustrial and civil construction business in operation in SUDENE area, may deposit in Banco do Nordeste do Brasil S/A - BNB, for reinvestments, 40 % of income tax owned by the refered interprises, calculated over the exploration profit, added 50 % of own resources but these resources will be avaliable due to complementation of equipaments.

    Amazon Investments Funds - FINAM

    Follow the same skeme of FINOR, with the difference that it holds all maranhense territory and FINAM covers the 108 towns of Maranhão which integrates the legal Amazon Region.


    Northeast Developing Nationa Fund - FNE

    Created by Federal Constitution in 1938 and regulated by law # 7.827 of 1989.
    It is a important finance mechanism of regional and state development. To the year of 1996 has the following financing activities : Agroindustrial and Rural sector.

    Bovine Culture and Bubalino

    Culture, ouvine caprino culture, aviculture and swing culture, apiculture, marine carciniculture, psiculture, handfishing, non irrigated agriculture (rice, beans, soybeans, fruitculture), industrial plans-cottom, sugar carre, peanuts, oil culture, manioc, swelt potato and potato; pepers and seeds) irrigated agriculture.

    * Period : up to 12 years, with 4 of shortage (fixed investments) and up to 8 years, with 4 years of shortage (semifixed investments).

    Agroindustries with frist priority : fruits, vegetables, treated and/or cooled/packing house, rice derivated/ seeds treatment; production of ration; vegetal oil production. In terms of space, the agroindustrial centers of Baixo Parnaíba, Baixada Ocidental Maranhense and Sul Maranhense are priorits.

    Industrial Activities

    Textile and clothes microcomplex : clothes articles fabrication; other textile industries; spenning and weaving of artificial/sintetic textile fibers; treatment, spenning and weaving of textile fibers.
    Non metalic minerals and construction microcomplex : cement structure and pieces fabrication; fabrication of other non metalic mineral products.

    Wood microcomplex :
    wood industries

    Petrochemic industry microcomplex : resines fabrication, fibers and elastometres; intermidiate petroquimic. Chemical elements microcomplex : production of chemical elements non petrochemicals; carbochemical.
    Final chemical products microcomplex : perfumary industries, soap and candles; fertilizers fabrication and soil corretive; plastic material article fabrication; several chemical production fabrication.
    Siderurgical and metalurgical microcomplex : fabrication of other metalurgical products; siderurgical; metalurgical of non ferrous; metalic minerals extraction.
    Equipments and machines microcomplex machines, equipments and instalation fabrication.

    Period:

    Limited to maximum of 8 years, with 3 years of shortage, some cases get to 12 years with 4 years of shortage.

    Technological Inovations

    Period : up to 12 years with 4 years of shortage.

    Tourism

    Hostage, camping, restaurants in touristic areas travel agencies and touristic operations, entertaiment activities and ecotmistic enterprises.

    Period : up to 10 years with 3 years of shortage.

    SINCOEX - State of Maranhão External Industry and Commerce Support System.

    Fiscal incentive as a subsidiated financing, created by law # 6.429, of September 20th, 1995 and directed to industrial and agroindustrial enterprises with implantation, expantion and relocatization projects and to external commerce especialized enterprises, in the importation from abroad.

    BENEFICIARIES

    - Agroindustrial and industrial companies - A&C.
    - External Commerce Especialized Company - ECEX.
    - Importers companies only, or importeirs and exportar only, in the state, and operating in the commercialization of imported products from abroad.

    Importing only branch, or importing and exporting only, in the state, even if its main office is not external commence expert company.

    Limits

    1 - AIC - up to 75 % of the received value of the goods circulation operations and over services of comunication and interstate and intertown transportation.

    2 - ECEX - up to 9 % of the output value of the goods taxed of the importe place, limited the incentive to the state participation value in the product of the tose collection.

    Time of Fruition

    1 - AIC - ten years from the financing contract signature.

    2 - ECEX - indetesminated, from its habilitation to the financing, by SINCOEX canrelling board.

    Shortage

    1- AIC - three years, from the date of libetation of each financing parcel.

    2 - ECEX - rise months, from the 1996 financing liberation.

    Amortization

    1- AIC - thirty days after the shortage time of each monthly parcel allowed to financing.

    2 - ECEX - in 60 monthly parcels, iguals and sucessives, from the 30th day after shortage time.

    Monetary up to date : during shortage time, the remain debt will be actualized by the Market Prices General Index, of the Getúlio Vargas Foundation, 169 - M, until the end of the shortage time.

    Deductions

    1 - AIC - the total actualized value will have a reduction up to 95 %.

    2 - ECEX - the total actualized value will have a reduction up to 85 %.

    Note : These social-economic datas are a publication under responsability of the State Planning Secretary.

    State Planning Secretary
    Estrela Street, 350-B - Praia Grande - São Luís, Zipcode 65.010-000 Centro
    Secretary : Jorge Murad
    Sub-secretary : Arlindo Simão Nogueira da Cruz
    Telephone : (098) 232 0288
    Fax : (098) 221 3107
    E-mail : seplan@elo.com.br
    y
    * Partially intregrated agroindustry, that assure through own
    - External Commerce Especialized Company - ECEX.
    - Importers companies only, or importeirs and exportar

    Canal Tourism

    Dial Tourism
    (0**98) 3244 4500
    (0**98) 3231 4696
    Know where to look for tourist information when it is in Maranhão


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